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Our analyzers use fully safe laser optical emission technology without hazardous radiation, provide long-term stable calibration, easy and low-cost maintenance. Abstract: In , Already today in China, many integrated mills partially convert their operations to EAF technology. EAF operations are very flexible in terms of raw material used and steel grades produced. In order to be competitive a good material efficiency metallic yield, but also process material consumptions like electrodes or refractories and a good energy efficiency electrical and chemical energy are essential.

This paper gives an overview of the latest global EAF performances in terms of material and energy efficiency in the different regions and for different technologies e. Furthermore, it describes several industry examples how to improve material and energy efficiency in EAF operations based on new methodologies e. Finite Network Method or by applying profound process and technology expertise for optimization.

In conclusion, an outlook about future EAF operations and performance will be given. Abstract: Almost the entire steel industry is currently driven by initiatives and CAPEX projects for improving operational competitiveness, safety levels and environmental footprint. Industry 4. In fact, skilled people will become even more important in the future, in order to understand, maintain and improve the new technologies and complex systems.

By experience, BSW is convinced that the road to success is a well-qualified and motivated workforce. This paper describes the history and the outlook of a unique system for qualifying steelmakers: The Badische Training Model. Established in in a rural area, the mini-mill had a design capacity of , tpy. An unskilled and inexperienced workforce initially operated it.

Today, BSW is one of the most productive and efficient mini-mills in the world with a current crude steel capacity of 2. Today, BSW has established a sophisticated and nationwide-awarded training concept for newcomers, while it also strongly focuses on the continuous multi-skilling of its workforce. To cope with future workforce requirements and to overcome the issue of decreasing birth rates, BSW applies several innovative concepts.

Since , more than 8, steelmakers from different countries were trained in the Badische mini-mill philosophy in order to learn and create their own success story. Abstract: In the past years, Tenova has launched a number of pilot projects to identify opportunities for applications of artificial intelligence techniques to find new ways of bringing value to its customers.

One project was carried out using the data from a BOF furnace in a customer plant. The goal was to predict the final steel temperature based on the composition and temperature of the input material hot metal, scrap, additions in the BOF vessel, in order to make optimal use of the charged material and improve the efficiency of the downstream steel process. Another project aimed at controlling cassette penetration and strip tension in a tension leveler machine for an Aluminum annealing and chemical treatment line, to improve product quality and system availability as well as reduce roll wear.

Yet another project for a steel making plant was to classify scrap material automatically from incoming truck images and images of the load on the ground, according to specifications. The goal was to speed up the classification process and improve its accuracy. For these and other projects different machine learning algorithms were used, from convolutional neural networks to support vector regression and random forest regression. This paper discusses the results obtained as well as the insight that came from the experience.

The conclusion is that there is definitely scope for applying machine learning models in steel plants with benefits limited only by the quality of the ideas and the availability of data. Abstract: It has been long recognized that conducting a unit operation in closed circuit enhances its efficiency. This concept also applies to the agglomeration of green balls in the iron ore pelletizing industry.

Metal7 has relied on classification principles to develop an array of solution to address some limiting constraint of pelletizing plants. Those principles had conducted more recently to the development of Triple Deck , a breakthrough technologies in the world of iron ore pelletizing plant. This presentation outlines the theoretical basis for the development of this new screening process and exposes the benefits for the end-user.

From increases in production, his positive impact in bed permeability resulting in higher pellet quality, as well as energy savings. This revolutionary technology has been developed in partnership with Corem and operated with success in one benchmark pelletizing plant in the Americas. Results of this industrial trial will be share through the presentation, as well as operating experience. Abstract: Environmental emission limits are getting more stringent all over the world since years.

In order to fulfill local emission requirements and even surpass them, modern electric arc furnaces have to consequently monitor and treat their off-gas emissions accordingly. This paper outlines the differences of conventional electric arc furnaces and shaft furnaces in terms of environmental emissions. Emission generation within the furnace as well as different technical solutions for off-gas cleaning and monitoring will be presented.

The different approaches and technical solutions for both furnace types will be highlighted from the emission source to the stack. The conclusion of this paper will show, that differences in final emissions of the two furnace technologies are minimal. Abstract: Since several months, the worldwide scrap availability is getting better and better. The prices for electrical energy are rising thus the efficiency of electric arc furnaces is getting more important.

Possible upgrades to pre heating furnaces very often are limited due to scrap yard and meltshop logistics, meltshop heights above the EAF area, and crane heights as well as lifting capacities. The biggest challenge of a brownfield integration of shaft furnace technologies is to reduce the shaft height without losing the efficiency of the scrap pre heating. Existing meltshop bay as well as crane heights usually limit the possibilities for shaft furnace integrations. Furthermore, the scrap logistics and the shorter tap to tap times have to be considered.

This paper will outline the available technical solutions, offered by PT, and will show the benefits in terms of OPEX and productivity increase by using latest shaft furnace technologies with minor changes to the existing meltshop. The layout was designed with the support of CRM Group and the full engineering and implementation at industrial scale was carried out by ArcelorMittal Fos itself. The installation was built by Azur Industries. WGR layouts have to be optimised in terms of many targets and constraints reduced emission of specific pollutants, reduced off-gas flow rate, energy savings, productivity and sinter quality, limited available space… which may widely differ from one plant to another.

Furthermore, the performances vs costs to be expected for one given WGR layout may depend on local conditions raw materials used, energy costs…. CRM has therefore developed a complete set of tools its sinter model, a flexible sintering pilot station and industrial measurement capacities in order to help its affiliated steel companies to make the best choice and optimise layouts in terms of local objectives and payback time. The selected final layout could even allow a productivity increase.

Simulations results supported also the pre-engineering and economical assessment. First industrial results confirmed the reduction of NOx emissions and showed also a significant improvement in terms of dust emission. Abstract: Sectional strip tension meter - Shapemeter roll Sectional strip tension meter is designed for evaluating of metal strip flatness in cold rolling mills.

The principle of the flatness evaluation is based on measuring of pressure forces of a metal strip in the individual zones of the measuring roll. A visual unit displays measured tensions across the strip in real time on monitor in the form of a column and flat graphical mapping.

Depending on the graph shape on the monitor, the operator can make the adjustment of the rolling mill. Abstract: For years, digitization has affected each industry and Industry 4. With Bilfinger Digital Next and the competence gained from decades of experience as industrial services provider , Bilfinger has set out to make its digital solutions for the optimization of maintenance and operations available to the steel industry.

The potential of optimization is undoubtedly present: with the help of the latest artificial intelligence and machine learning technology, individual use cases can be defined within the steel industry. Models are developed to monitor the condition of individual machines with the help of virtual sensors that combine and evaluate all relevant plant data with cloud solutions. Asset health monitoring, among a variety of additional solutions, allows deep insights improving quality, reducing waste, emissions and energy consumption.

Eventually, Bilfinger Digital Next is dedicated to this goal. Abstract: In cold rolling, tribological effects prevailing at the interface of the work roll and strip surface greatly influence the rolling process and the quality of the final cold rolled product. In particular, the amount of iron fines generated in the roll gap significantly influences strip surface cleanliness. Research work done on this topic has shown that improving the lubrication efficiency especially in the early mill stands helps to avoid excessive wear generation and thus allows to improve the surface quality of the final product.

This paper explains the wear mechanism and the influence of strip, process and lubricant parameters on the generation of strip wear in cold rolling. The system is currently operated based on a lubrication table depending on the steel grade and process parameters.

Operational results are presented that demonstrate a reduction of the required rolling forces and power consumptions by improved roll-gap friction. Measurements of the strip surface cleanliness after cold rolling have shown a significant improvement compared to the previously installed conventional emulsion lubrication system. Currently, intelligent model-based lubrication control concepts are being investigated that allow to influence crucial process parameters such as the coefficient of friction or the forward slip.

In the production of ULC steel grades via the RH-process route, Al is first added for deoxidation after the end of decarburization and FeTi after a certain period of separation of alumina particles and the related reduction of the total oxygen content. The FeTi-addition is well known to cause clogging problems in the following casting process. These particles are comparably smaller as the alumina particles and even if thermodynamically unstable, they still exist as a large population of small particles in samples taken from the tundish.

The local supersaturation of Ti and O during the dissolution of the FeTi-particles seems to be the main reason for the nucleation of these inclusions. Sessile drop experiments indicate that the wetting angle between these Ti-containing alumina particles and ULC steel is at the same level as for pure alumina particles. However, due to only moderate convection of the melt in the ladle after the FeTi-addition, the agglomeration tendency for these particles is low and as previous work has shown, a large number of non-wetting small particles is most critical for clogging.

Laboratory experiments and plant observations are in correspondence and indicate some countermeasures for the better control of clogging. Co-Authors: M. Ringhofer, K. Herzog, E. Tatschl-Unterberger, W. Oberaigner, P. Pennerstorfer, J. Plaul, K. Abstract: A vast amount of companies in the steel industry started digitalization initiatives in the past years.

First implementations of those initiatives had been already commissioned successfully. During the implementation process of such systems it was identified that technology is essential as enabler, however, to make full use of the implemented systems the cultural aspects in a company need to be considered in an equal manner.

Especially when software systems are being installed, they also trigger changes in the ways of working in order to untap the full potential of the installed systems. Software systems supporting business processes are already around for decades and the critical success factors had been researched already quite well thus such implementation challenges are not a novelty to the current digitalization initiatives. Nevertheless, the learning from those past installations is not always considered to the extent required.

This paper shows in a few case studies the critical success factors in selected digitalization projects. One of the digitalization projects shows how the acceptance of the digital twin in a continuous casting machine increased over the years.

First installations of digital twins were commissioned decades ago and had basic functionalities to offer. Over the past years the functionalities of the digital twin developed further providing now plant operators, plant designers and start-up engineers with a package to model, simulate, optimize and control the machine. Another example describes that a Through-Process Optimization system brought transparency along the whole value chain allowing to optimize and control a plant in a holistic manner, making strong cross departmental alignment and top management attention to critical success factors.

A further case study shows that the available process know-how became a critical success factor when installing and optimizing a production management systems to be accepted and fully used by the operators. Abstract: Up until recently ironmaking process optimization systems focused on the production processes of stand-alone operations such as individual sinter plants, pelletizing plants and blast furnaces.

This control has been based on locally-stored recent — and therefore limited — data. Process models convert data into usable information, expert systems judge the process conditions and derive required actions by rule based decision support systems to achieve a standardized operation strategy. These systems provide a digital assistant to supervise the overall plant and to offer decision-making solutions to meet the required KPIs of for example productivity, cost and quality.

Automatic control and decision support systems naturally rely on data: The integration of innovative data sources as Acoustic Measurements, Tuyere Optics and Intelligent Staves into the automation landscape and related benefits are discussed.

Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint.

The interaction of these systems with the local optimization systems is described in this paper: Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint. Co-Authors: H. Fritschek, N.

Laister, R. Lamplmayr, M. Lehner, H. Lindbichler, B. Schwarzbauer, D. Ulrich, W. Abstract: Higher demands regarding flexibility is a key request of modern plant operation and hence for the respective automation system. At the same time any downtime of a production facility causes loss of production and can even harm your plant.

Especially the complex processes of ironmaking — in particular in blast furnaces and direct reduction plants — require a reliable and highly available automation backbone. This system has to control the process at any time, deliver sound performance in daily operation and guarantee easy and flexible maintainability. A clearly structured system based on proper system design, advanced programming tools and software management , flexible communication and interfaces, inclusion of smart sensors, simulation with a digital twin for operator training and development of software modifications, online documentation to support the operating and maintenance personnel as well as virtualization concepts, belong to the cornerstones of digitalization — features that are offered by state-of-the-art automation systems.

Abstract: Waste products are actually raw materials in disguise, waiting for a smart person to identify them and put them back into use by an appropriate process. This groundbreaking process is designed to recycle all possible raw material wastes RMWs from an integrated steel plant to produce direct reduced iron DRI. The reduced briquettes with high metallic iron are excellent high-value intermediate products to sell to mini-mills having electric arc furnaces EAF , or to charge in the blast furnace to lower the coke rate as much as possible.

The process is also able to generate power as the by-product. This work presents the development and the technical background of this novel process, which has been developed partially in India and partially in Austria patent application in Austria. This work also explores the possibility of installing this new technology in Europe as well as in global context.

Abstract: The properties of coke play a crucial role in the blast furnace process. Coke, a highly cost intensive raw material, is the most important reducing agent for the furnace. During the burden descend inside a blast furnace, coke undergoes several macro and microscopic changes in its structure due to the combined effect of chemical and mechanical process conditions inside the furnace.

A strong and stable structure of coke is necessary in order to secure smooth movement of the burden as well as to maintain the bed permeability. The surface properties of coke play an important role to influence coke properties. Previous research works have demonstrated the effect of slag penetration in the coke structure due to the change of coke surface caused by Boudouard reaction. In this work, several blast furnace coke samples of different qualities in terms of their CRI and CSR values are investigated microscopically in order to characterize the topographic nature of their surface.

Coke samples before and after CRI tests have been tested and their surface roughness and other topographic parameters are measured along with successive correlation to their reactivity indices. The samples are also analyzed using BET technique to measure their specific surface areas and these values are correlated with the topographic parameters. The results reveal a better understanding of the changes of surface properties of coke caused by similar conditions as blast furnace.

Applications for steel powders include forging tools and structural components for various industries. For large parts, the choice of tool-paths influences the build-rate, the part performance and the distortions in a highly geometry-dependent manner. With weld-path lengths in the range of hundreds of meters, a reliable, automated tool path generation is essential for the usability of LMD processes.

In this contribution, automated tool-path generation approaches are shown and their results are discussed for arbitrary geometries. After generation, the tool-paths are automatically formatted into g-code for experimental build-up and ASCII for a numerical simulation model. Finally, the tool paths are discussed in regards to volume-fill, microstructure and porosity for the experimental samples and temperature flow for the numerical model. Guidelines are presented for the geometry-dependent selection of path-strategies.

Abstract: Paul Wurth works on the advancement of durable engineering concepts and design solutions for BF-hearth side walls since many decades. Preventing structural failures in BF-hearth lining already in the early BF campaign on the one hand and avoiding accelerated hearth lining wear on the other hand will be discussed in the paper as well. Different classical BF-hearth lining concepts and designs will be compared and judged regarding their success.

Is it necessary to change the mind-set and develop new BF-hearth lining concepts for high specific hot metal production rates and significantly prolonged BF-hearth lining life campaigns? Abstract: The metal industry is facing ever stringent environmental regulations leading to more and more efficient off-gas systems. These new off-gas systems generate additional by-products in the form of dusts and sludges.

At the same time, the quality and scarcity of raw materials is becoming a real issue and metal producers have to maximize their resource efficiency in order to maintain their competitiveness. Its objective is to synergistically combine by-products from different sectors in view of their recycling in the production of FeMn alloys.

This paper presents the different cold and hot stage pre-processing steps required before recycling. Indeed, to be recyclable the by-products mix has to comply with process requirements such as mechanical strength. Several binders have been tested and optimised in order to minimize the cost of cold pre-processing while providing the required mechanical properties. The final feasibility assessment will be done in during a semi-industrial campaign using a kW Smelting Arc Furnace.

Abstract: Materials and processes for the third-generation advanced high strength steels W. Bleck1, F. Ma1, C. AHSS have been developed in recent years. The innovation and development of the new generation AHSS brings ecological and economic potential in the automotive industry for reducing automotive weight, improving fuel efficiency, and decreasing CO2 emission.

The microstructure design concepts of the 3. To achieve the sophisticated microstructure, multi-step thermal processing routes are employed. In this case, the manganese partitioning plays an essential role in stabilizing austenite. As a consequence, the combination of the unique characteristics of each microstructural component contributes to the extraordinary mechanical properties of the 3. Specifically, the transformation-induced-plasticity TRIP effect in the metastable austenite improves the strain-hardening rate effectively, leading to an excellent combination of high strength and good ductility.

In the current paper, the alloy design concept, microstructure characteristics, mechanical properties as well as potential applications of the 3. AHSS are summarized. The critical aspects in controlling stability and fraction of retained austenite in the new generation AHSS are explained.

The requirements for the process design and the new annealing concepts are emphasized. They consist of a number of high-speed, intelligent and yet inexpensive cameras that are arranged closely next to each other in groups — the clusters. The distance between two cameras is 20mm, each cluster consists of 16 cameras, cameras are used for two-meter inspection. By lining up multiple cluster modules next to each other, it is possible to measure foil, strip and plate of any width as well as long products.

The innovative technology makes the clusters highly interesting for a number of measurement tasks in the steel, aluminium and nonferrous metal industries for cold and hot applications. Information on defects is extremely important not only for quality assurance, but also to avoid broken strip. Due to the high resolution and steep angle of sight, the technology can also be used economically for the first time for inline measurement of slit strip width in slitting lines. Especially for tinplate and aluminium packaging material camera cluster systems are applicable for detection of pinholes in the size of several micrometer.

Wherever the flatness, levelness, contour is necessary to be measured, the camera cluster technology in combination with laser line projection laser triangulation principle is used. In cut-to-length lines this technology is applicable for sheet and plate dimension measurement such length, width, out of squareness, diagonals and camber. IMS also uses the innovative technology for surface inspection as well. For long products camera cluster are used for straightness measurement. This development raises increasing demands on avoiding surface defects during the production of strip steel, which is typically used by OEMs for outer panel applications.

Aim of this presentation is to illustrate how thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG tkSE meets this requirement by the example of using a contactless cleaning device at the in-line skin-pass mill SPM of its continuous annealing line CAL : This SPM operates without using any liquid medium for cleaning neither working nor back-up rolls in order to avoid rust dots on the uncoated steel surface. Due to that, dirt appears and may result in dents into the strip surface, which represent major quality defects.

To reduce surface defects caused by dirt while keeping the SPM operating in the wanted dry mode a contactless cleaning device has been developed by tkSE. In recent years, this procedure of contactless cleaning was successfully implemented and industrially tested at the tkSE's CAL in Dortmund. Today, an automatized contactless cleaning device is continuously operating in this line with a positive effect on dirt-related surface defects.

Abstract: Primetals Technologies has developed a new vertical sinter shaft cooler that is not only highly energy-efficient but is also much more environmentally friendly than conventional circular sinter coolers. It is based on a counter-flow cooling process, so heat transfer efficiency is significantly higher than in a conventional sinter cooler. The shaft cooler design allows the optimized utilization of sensible heat contained in the hot sinter. With this approach the temperature of the cooling air exiting the shaft can be maximized and more efficiently applied for the generation of steam.

The total cooler off air of the process is finally cleaned in a dedusting unit which gives the environmental benefit of zero diffuse dust emissions. The system consists of a pan conveyor for charging the shaft cooler, the shaft cooler, a heat recovery system and a bag filter unit. Operational results and achievements of the first installed shaft cooler will be presented. The aim of the paper is to illustrate a continuous processing route for AM metal powders production developed to maximize productivity rates, efficiency and flexibility while minimizing production costs and environmental impact.

Together with other benefits, this processing system is designed to face the challenge of the industrialization phase relevant to AM Powder production processes. Abstract: Descaling is an important step in the rolling process. The oxide is removed from the surface of the product to improve surface quality and maintain the rolls. Nozzle selection and header design are important parts of an effective descaling system.

The nozzles need to be sized and placed, so they provide sufficient impact force to remove the oxide with the minimal amount of water possible. Headers need to be sized to maximize the impact performance of the nozzles. Impact testing along with CFD analysis can help to determine if a header has been properly designed to provide maximum impact force.

CFD analysis can determine the fluid approach velocity along with the turbulence level in the header. The spray pattern of the nozzle can then be measured for impact force and distribution under different approach velocities and turbulence levels. Comparing these to a nozzle tested under an ideal no turbulence condition can determine minimum header size requirements based on nozzle capacity and pressure.

Optimizing the header can help to improve performance and minimize energy costs. This paper will show the results of several existing installations where both CFD and impact testing was used to optimize a descaling operation in hot strip mills and plate mills. Abstract: With the mainstream adoption of technologies, such as Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Data Analytics and Digitalization, many industries are exploring these areas to understand how each solves unique challenges in their operational value chain.

This paper explores non-steel producing industries to see what solutions are being adopted, problems they are solving, and how this relates to the steel industry. Further, this paper discusses how Midrex is making these technologies available in Midrex Connect, a connected services platform, designed to help customers understand Industry 4. Abstract: Blast furnace hearth lifetime extension remains one of the biggest challenges within the whole integrated steelmaking system.

Savings associated with a long hearth campaign are difficult to estimate but are huge. The eternal hearth goal may appear impossible today but our current path holds promise. Hearth lifetimes over recent decades have increased incrementally from around 5 years to over 20 years. We are now looking for stepwise improvements. Saint-Gobain Ceramic Cup technology has been one of the key factors in hearth lifetime extension especially following adoption of sialon bonded corundum in There is already very clear evidence that the first two sialon bonded corundum qualities have lasted 8 to 10 years before the self-protecting layer on carbon needs stabilising.

Saint-Gobain announces the launch of a new quality for Ceramic Cup. This last generation of Alumina Sialon Bonded material was especially developed to withstand the severe and extreme conditions existing inside the hearth. This new enhanced quality exhibits outstanding properties, surpassing the good and proven performances of former products.

Major optimizations were necessary to reach this result from recipe to reactive sintering process, making this material perfectly designed to protect the hearth carbon lining. The corrosion resistance to iron and slag has been significantly improved to reduce kinetic and chemical erosion of the refractory including the critical interface iron - slag - refractory.

In addition, the excellent refractoriness of Al2O3 Sialon bonded materials is maintained with resistance to CO environment and high thermo-mechanical stability. Finally, the resistance to chemical attacks and oxidation has been improved. In this paper, this new material will be benchmarked against other materials, tested or currently used in the blast furnace to highlight the main technical advantages.

Such emissions may involve complicated relationship with neighbourhood of steel Plants. Important expenses may be due to local or international regulations regarding the finest dust particles emitted in the atmosphere. The solutions cover the full range of particle size, from the coarsest particles involving dust deposition on the ground within the first kilometres around the steel plants to the finest visible particles emitted by the roofs and other diffuse sources of the Steel process.

The WEB monitoring interface delivers Alarm and important information such as the location of the main sources. The sensor samples the deposition for accurate analysis. It is optimized for steel shop, electric furnace, blast furnace and coke plant. A dashboard gives the opportunity to edit statistics for ISO management. Abstract: Even today, no one in the world can precisely quantify ASIS performance for the whole running production as in contrast to common measuring systems where the accuracy of the measurement is well defined, it is almost impossible for the user to determine comparable quantities for an ASIS.

This guideline should lead to comparable ASIS results of proven reliability as a first step towards real measurement of surface quality. This paper discusses the project results and the concepts developed for ASIS stability testing. In order to extend the product range further especially in terms of grades and sizes, NLMK DanSteel decided to revamp and expand the heavy-plate rolling mill.

The large-scale expansion and modernization comprises a new laminar plate cooling system with water treatment equipment, new heavy plate cooling bed and a revamp of the existing cold-plate leveler. The new plate cooling system will allow NLMK DanSteel to produce high-strength plate for various applications, like e. The new water treatment system will filter and cool the cooling water and feed it back into the process in a closed circuit.

A new cooling bed for thick plate is to be installed downstream of the laminar cooling system and existing hot-plate leveler. The plate will be delivered automatically to the cooling bed, which will be able to handle plate weights of up to 40 tons and more.

The existing cold-plate leveler will also undergo a comprehensive revamp. In order to reduce shutdown times to a minimum, suitable installation strategies and optimized erection schedules were developed on the basis of a 3D laser survey. The paper will provide insights in the partly highly complex modifications and implementation strategy. Abstract: In steel production we often encounter special steel grades having increased requirements in terms of the surface quality.

The fulfillment of such quality requirements can be achieved by a suitable choice of cooling intensities in individual loops of the secondary cooling zone. This preserves a final product with a minimum number of defects. The developed 3D transient solidification model BrDSM is applicable to monitor and control the evolution of temperature distribution of the cast strand. The solidification model is coupled with the fuzzy-based regulator, which controls and adjusts cooling intensities in the secondary cooling zone to maintain surface temperatures of the strand in specified temperature intervals ensuring a low occurrence of defects and a good final quality.

The aim of the paper is to investigate an optimum design of the secondary cooling zone, which allows for sufficiently smooth regulation, but with regard to a minimal cost of the zone number of pumps, valves, electronics.

Therefore, the objective is to optimally split a secondary cooling zone into proper number of cooling loops. The paper presents results for an optimal number of cooling loops for a case of dynamic process fluctuations with abrupt changes of the casting speed. Results demonstrate that the proposed coupled system is an efficient tool capable for the design optimization of the secondary cooling zone.

HTT developed the new technology to significantly improve efficiency of burner flame as well as of injected oxygen. It enables controlled wide range motion of the flame and supersonic oxygen jet inside the furnace area, while burner body remains static and sealed in the furnace wall. This brings substantial advantages of EAF operation as volume of the scrap preheated by flame increase due to flame ability to move and flame can be better directed to the required spots in the furnace.

Further to this, ability to move supersonic oxygen jet speed up scrap cutting in period of transition from solid the liquid phase. These benefits are reached while furnace is still tight sealed and burner body inside the furnace is not moving. The paper will describe technological principles as well as practical results and experience gained during EAF operation with HTT OxymoTM technology in these two plants.

Abstract: In order to control and investigate all major steps of metal additive manufacturing, SMS group has set up a 3D Competence Center at their location in Moenchengladbach, Germany. A full scale powder atomization plant for the production of high-grade metal powders has been built to gain detailed operator know-how and production expertise to develop and produce different AM powders.

A fully equipped laboratory guarantees high qualities for the further processing using a laser based powder bed fusion printer. The main goal is to analyze and develop the different influencing factors during atomization and further powder processing and the correlating properties during the downstream processing steps.

By this full liner approach for the entire value chain of additive manufacturing, SMS can bring the best value to customers. In this paper, the Powder Atomization Plant and its technical features are described in detail to show the correlations of the powder processing and best results of the laser based powder bed fusion printer.

To realize highest cleanness of the powder, the melting and refining of metals and alloys is taken place under vacuum or inert gas atmosphere. The atomizing process with argon or nitrogen, using the close-coupled principal, guarantees defined grain sizes and distribution of metal powders.

An anti-satellite system is used for the needed spherical particles shapes which guarantee good flow properties during the 3D printing process. Combining a high utilization grade of metal powder and the right particle size and shape for additive manufacturing at highest quality, the new plant concept of SMS group demonstrates customers how to become the leading supplier of the AM industry.

Abstract: Reducing CO2 emissions by around 80 percent to is the central climate goal, and requires both energy suppliers and industry to prepare themselves and explore new pathways together. For the industry, transport, and energy sectors, CO2-free hydrogen is an important source of energy for sector coupling and can significantly contribute to achieving the climate goals.

The vision is to move away from carbon via bridging technologies based on natural gas, as is already the case at the direct reduction plant of voestalpine in Texas and finally on to the greatest possible use of green hydrogen in steelmaking. The prerequisite is the provision of sufficient energy from renewable sources and at competitive prices.

Construction of the new PEM pilot plant for the production of CO2-free hydrogen together with research on other breakthrough technologies like hydrogen plasma smelting reduction is a step further towards the long-term realization of a technology transformation in the steel industry in the next couple of decades. This calls for flexible and well-designed production plants with reduced maintenance and longer equipment lifetime.

Centre segregation and porosity, in high quality blooms and billets, can cause inconsistent mechanical properties and potential failure of the final product. Additionally, introduction of DynaPhase model influences further improvement of thermal tracking, resulting superb quality of the cast product. Abstract: Addition of directed reduced iron DRI or hot briquetted iron HBI to blast furnaces has been studied for decades and has well known benefits for increasing productivity and decreasing coke rate.

In the last few years, it has been of interest as a means to reduce ironmaking carbon dioxide emissions. Despite the technical benefits, DRI or HBI addition to the blast furnace is rarely done due to economic reasons or issues related to low top-gas temperatures.

Operational issues related to top gas temperature constraints will be discussed. The practical limits for addition and potential ability to shut down a blast furnace at a multiple blast furnace facility will be explored. Carbon dioxide savings will be estimated. Part 3 of this paper will consider hot gas addition to the mid-stack of the blast furnace in order to increase top gas temperature to allow for higher DRI or HBI addition.

The hot gases can be generated via plasma torches to further reduce CO2 emissions from the ironmaking area. Co-Authors: R. Albanese, J. Grindey, J. Busser, M. Sukhram, I. Cameron, R. Pula, M. Abstract: Leaking tuyeres damage hearth refractories, chill the hearth and cause production losses. Steel and Hatch implemented a soft sensor at Blast Furnace No. The soft-sensor statistically compares inlet and outlet water flows for each tuyere. Leaks are found quickly by tracking fast and slow drifts in the differential water flowrates.

This paper will discuss the development of the soft-sensor and present examples of the leak events that were successfully detected. Co-Authors: P. Ghosh , D. Srivastava, A. Chatterjee , A. Bajaj, R. Ghosh , A. Garg, F. Garbugino, M. Bassetti, L. Spadoni, K. At Bhilai Steel Plant where the existing BF plant consists of seven mid-size furnaces of Soviet design built in the ies , this new unit was to become Blast Furnace No.

The paper will highlight the latest technological solutions adopted and the main challenges met during the project, in particular all the required plant units had to be arranged within the allocated area for this brownfield installation and especially the layouts of the main charging conveyor, of the racks for utilities pipes and cable and of the railway tracks had to be finalized with unconventional solutions. This was to ensure the maintainability and accessibility of the surrounding areas during construction and for the future operations of the plant.

With an inner volume of 4, m3, a hearth diameter of Abstract: The goal of this study is to forecast the electrical energy consumption of an Electric Arc Furnace using historical data from a steel mini-mill producing clean steel. Machine learning models are created, specializing on three of the main types of steel grades produced in the steel plant. The goal is to predict the electrical energy consumption for the next heat. The results from the interpretability algorithms are then compared to previous research results on the dynamics of the Electric Arc Furnace energy consumption to achieve a model-to-application-domain transparency.

Abstract: Bragg grating optical fibers can replace, with significant advantages, the temperature measurements previously performed by thermocouples. This paper describe, from a pratical point of view, the first results of the conversion. Abstract: A demand for high quality steels is growing around the world.

The RH vacuum degasser is one of the equipment used to refining these steels. During the vacuum process, it is possible to reduce H, N, C and increase the cleanliness of molten steel. The RH process is characterized by the continuous circulation of steel through two snorkels in a refractory vessel that is under vacuum. The vacuum generator system is composed of a series of steam ejectors and condensers. To produce vacuum, high volumes of steam is used in the vacuum pump. Its operational cost is very high and efforts should be made to optimize the process times.

Usually the RH-twin is composed of two vessels that share the same vacuum pump. The conventional practice is to finish the vacuum in first vessel and then start vacum in second heat in the another vessel. At Ternium-BR, improvements in vacuum pump operating logic allowed to treat two heats in different vessels at the same time using the same vacuum pump simultaneous treatment in the RH-twin vacuum degasser. The results are promising as they affect the productivity rate of the steelmaking plant.

Co-Authors: D. Carvalho, W. Lima, M. Guerra, F. Garajau, B. Maia, R. Formage, P. Abstract: Ternium Brazil has two BOF converters with tapping capacity of t with a good geometry and specific volume, however, displays typical steelworks problems related to the oxygen lance skulls formation. This paper describes the main actions to reduce these effects through improvements in the operational practices and introduction of new technologies such as Slagless associated with slag removal device.

Lance life has been increased, promoting operational safety due to the reduction of lance skulls as well as the reduction in the lance exchange ratio. And some results will be introduced in this paper. Abstract: In the steel industry, coke oven gas is produced by heating the coal cake in the slot type batteries. The coke oven gas contains coal tar. The coal tar is precipitated and separated by lowering the coke oven gas temperature.

The coal tar thus produced can be used in many high-end applications but its high quinoline insoluble QI content makes it difficult to use. Hence, QI reduction becomes important. There are many techniques through which QI can be reduced. In this paper, combination of solvent addition for viscosity reduction and centrifugation technique for QI separation was used. Wash oils fresh, recycle and spent present in the coke by-product plant were used for coal tar viscosity reduction.

The coal tar and wash oil was varied in the ratio of to and heated to oC. The heated mixture of coal tar and solvent was centrifuged for 5 to 20 min at rpm. Different parameters such as optimum temperature for viscosity reduction, coal tar to solvent ratio, wash oil type, centrifuge time and rpm were optimized.

Spent wash oil was found to be better solvent. Centrifuge time of 5 min and rpm was optimum for the removal of QI. The reduction in QI for and blends of tar and spent wash oil were The new model was also applied to the bath annealing furnaces at the China Steel Corporation. Abstract: The continuity in ladle circulation across various steelmaking unit operations is critical for the attainment of operational efficiency of a plant. Every steel plant with a certain capacity, process flow, operations philosophy and product mix has a certain velocity of flow across the steel circuit.

Disruption in the flow velocity due to external and internal events leads to suboptimal operations in terms of thruput, quality, costs, energy and emissions. Abstract: Every company wants to maintain the competitiveness in a rapidly changing market environment. In the life cycle of a production line, whether it is an existing rolling line or a new line, two aspects have always to be considered: - higher quality - lower cost For this purpose, Sinosteel can provide our customers with effective technical solutions, as well as core equipments to implement the technical solutions.

For the finishing rolling, the material is rolled in the double-phase zone. After the rolling, whether the low-temperature austenite or the deformed ferrite make results in the grain refining. Our innovative cooling method can guarantee the homogeneous and uniform grain distribution. V, Nb and etc. Grain refine higher than 9 degree, without martensite or others.

This technology of temperature control rolling can be applied in wire rod mill, normalized bar mill, high-speed bar mill. Abstract: Taiwan is located at a compressive tectonic area and lack of natural resources; therefore most industrial feedstocks are imported. Metallurgical coal and iron ore are two main ingredients in steelmaking. It is necessary to be conversant with the characteristics from different resource areas. Indonesia is playing a major role in the coal market since Indonesian coal benefits from low ash and sulfur contents.

Due to the ideal geographic position for Asian coal demand, it is time to engage in the study of Indonesian metallurgical coal. Basic coal and coke analysis are undertaken to generalize the chemical and physical properties. Nevertheless, the coke strength after a high temperature is unpredictable. Coal and coke petrographic methods are attempted to correlate the qualities of coke with coal.

High vitrinite contents are found in most of Indonesian coals, and therefore the reactive maceral derived components are abundant in coke microtexture. The lack of inert maceral derived components and thin coke walls are discovered from the coke microstructure.

The briquetting process was adopted to increase the bulk density, and the 15lb pilot coke oven test was undertaked to testify the quality impovement. Both microtexture and microstructure analysis of coal briquette and coke lump are used to clarify the coke reactive mechanism. Abstract: Ds inclusions have great influence on the fatigue life of case hardening gear steel, high grade case hardening gear steel for Japanese cars is used to limit calcium treatment during steelmaking process.

Non-calcium treated case hardening gear steel contain mainly high-melting inclusions, which can easily clog the nozzles during continuous casting, resulting in a low number of continuous casting heats and large B-type inclusions in the finished products.

Abstract: Mitigating CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry is becoming critical in Western Europe, as the cost of CO2 emissions increases. The supporting process details, calculations and experimental results that lead to this innovative process will be presented. Unfortunately, hydrogen is not currently available at sufficient scale and low cost for rapid adoption. This paper will review the status of the transition from a Carbon Economy to a Hydrogen Economy, its challenges and various on-going activities.

Like DRI, it is primarily used in electric arc furnaces and allows the production of high quality steel products that could not be made consistently due to high residual element levels inherent in most obsolete scrap. The enhanced physical characteristics of HBI proved to be a solution to the handling, shipping, and storing issues associated with conventional cold DRI.

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BINARY OPTIONS DEMO REVIEW

The reduction rate was decreased gradually with increasing the amount of coated material per ton of iron ore pellet. Also decreasing the slurry conacentration of the coating material enhanced the pellet reducibility. Abstract: A reverse taper ladle shroud would allowed an immersed steel bath opening of a new ladle, which helps to reduce the re-oxidation during the new ladle opening in comparison with the conventional open stream above tundish steel bath.

This would lead to enhance the slab quality by minimizing non-metallic inclusions entrapment in liquid steel. However, immersed flow might drag some tundish slag to the liquid steel bath and affect the slab quality. Therefore, in this work a mathematical simulation model was developed to evaluate the influence of this shroud design on the cleanness level of the produced steel slab.

The model results were used to conduct the comparison between the influence of reverse taper shroud design and the currently used conventional shroud design in the plant. A 3D multi-phase mathematical simulation model results were discussed in this paper; several immersion depths of a ladle shroud in liquid steel were examined.

While the BFs are relined on a regular basis, the corresponding stove plants remain often in service since they have been built. Some of them reached the end of their normal service life and need to be revamped soon. However the relining time of a BF is typically too short for the relining or revamping of a hot blast stove.

Therefore hot blast stoves are often relined sequentially; sometimes even the installation of an additional stove is necessary, in order to minimise interferences with the BF operation. Paul Wurth has carried out sequential stove revampings in different plants with different stove designs. This paper will illustrate three of these projects, each with its own challenges. The technology for the different projects is always considering constrains given by the existing plant configuration and special requirements by customers.

Therefore a different stove technology was considered for each project internal combustion chamber stoves, external combustion chamber stoves, top fired stoves , which will be illustrated as well. Abstract: Mold flux technology has in the last years reached its full maturity, thus the process of de-commoditization has become more and more important to improve profitability and competiveness.

A way to achieve this, has been to work on performance bearing components of the product to substitute raw materials which may prove to be constraints in manufacturing and selling of mold fluxes due to their prices or their limited geographical sources. Wollastonite is a prime example of such a raw materials since its one of the main components of mold fluxes and sources of suitable grade of this mineral are limited.

In this work we tried to substitute wollastonite in granulated products with lime and sand. To achieve this, a process of hybridization of calcium oxide particles has been carried out to inhibit reaction of lime with water by covering the surface with an hydrophobic material.

Different additives have been tested and a procedure has been defined to test water reactivity. Once sufficiently inhibited calcium oxide particles were obtained, a batch production has been prepared to manufacture a mold flux to be tested in the laboratory. The 2nd area is the production of near-net shape components as composite or solid piece.

It is filled into a steel capsule with powder and compacted under isostatic pressure and high temperature depending on the alloy. In composite parts, a solid shell or core serves as a carrier material to have a powder coating by diffusion bond connection with each other. As powder alloys are selected, which are not conventionally produced.

Alloys with a high proportion of wear and corrosion-resistant components are melted and than gas atomized. This allows to obtain a uniform homogeneity of the atomized powder grains and to prevent segregation due to the high cooling rate. The subsequent shaping takes place by filling the powder in a sheet metal capsule. The filled capsule is evacuated and placed later into the HIP facility.

Due to the isostatically applied argon gas pressure under the influence of temperature, the powder sinters. The homogeneity of the component is ensured by limiting a HIP temperature below Solidus. The subsequent processing can be carried out with conventional tools and machines or with other methods before and after a heat treatment.

Examples of this technology can be listed as components for the extrusion machinery used for plastic market and the offshore industry. Other applications can be rollers, pressure vessels etc. Abstract: voestalpine is a technology leader in the development, production and processing of cutting-edge steel products and is a benchmark company for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility.

Developing new products takes time, so it is necessary to try to predict in advance what our customers will need in some years ahead. Predicting the future is quite challenging. Megatrends and new technologies must regularly be monitored and evaluated as a basis for strategy.

Megatrends show global developments such as the rise in world population, a resulting rise in energy consumption and the diversification of mobility. We have identified trends that are relevant for our business and will influence our further development. The combination of metallurgical and processing know-how is an asset to develop new technical solutions and innovative products, like components for the lightweight car body and e-mobility, intelligent systems for the railway sector, highly sophisticated materials for aerospace and special materials for the energy market.

We use digitalization for optimizing processes and we are utilizing new technologies, as in additive manufacturing. Megatrends will of course bring changes to our business and the markets. We see them as a challenge, but even more as a big chance for the further use of applications from steel and other high performance metals in the future. Activities carried out for the setup and tailoring of the coefficients of both heat transfer and phase transformation models are presented.

In particular, cooling characteristics of stirred aqueous polymer quenchants were characterized by means of laboratory tests according to ASTM D and industrial trials using steel blocks instrumented with thermocouples. Moreover, an in-house 2D finite volume thermal-metallurgical model, specific for components of simple shape, such as bars, pipes, and blocks, has been developed, calibrated and applied.

In both cases, the austenite transformation is determined by considering the cooling curve as a series of micro-isotherms and applying the laws governing the isothermal austenite transformation, derived by isothermal diagrams for diffusive transformations. Furthermore, martensite formation is calculated as a function of undercooling below martensite start temperature.

The total hardness is calculated using a linear mixture law, using as weights the volume fractions of the microstructural constituents. The results of numerical modelling have been compared with actual properties of quenched and tempered forgings made of different steels. The microstructure has been investigated and hardness measured in order to verify the numerical model accuracy. Abstract: The direct tapping is a procedure to tap the molten steel without waiting for end of blow sample result.

This process assumes the risk to out of range chemical composition, mainly regarding phosphorus. This project is about the development of an artificial neural network ANN model associated with a decision making algorithm to predict the correct decision to be taken by the BOF operator in the last phase of processing. The decision of direct tap, wait for sample results or reblow the heat is supported by the software. Long and short term process data is used in the process of training the neural and decision making algorithm.

Abstract: The developed model is an association of thermodynamic calculations for dissolution of alloys, slag formers and deoxidation reaction in the molten steel with two artificial neural networks ANN models trained with industrial data, to predict the molten steel temperature drop from the blowing end at BOF until the first measurement at secondary metallurgy. To calculate the associated energy for deoxidation, an experiment was designed to set up the parameters for oxygen partitioning among deoxidants, with the aluminum timing of addition during teeming being the main parameter.

The temperature control in the teeming stage presented a standard deviation for the error of prediction of 5. The artificial neural network model confirmed its capacity for modeling a complex multivariable process and the separation of thermodynamic calculation provides a better adaptability to different steel grades with different teeming strategies.

Abstract: The understanding of a digital EAF production means the seamless interaction of the installed equipment and any new feature and digital assistance system, which are added during a continuous plant modernization and step-by-step upgrade activities. It covers the implementation of small automation steps, the usage of digital information of smart sensors as well as major changes in the automation system towards digital assistance tools like a dynamic Know-How database and a flexible Rule Engines for an efficient production of demanding steel grades.

Digital EAF steelmaking starts with automated scrap handling and preparation, followed by a fully automated melting process guided by camera systems and automatic measuring devices. Autonomous transport systems for ladles and materials guarantee a safe handling and the precise execution of the defined process logistics. Powerful tools for the process analysis and Business Intelligence systems allow a deep insight in the physical production and provide required information for important decisions and Life Cycle measures at a glance.

Encrypted state-of-the-art cloud technology for selective data exchange in combination with service contracts with a dynamic duration offer access to professional big data analysis algorithms to fix insufficiencies. In cooperation with a powerful service center the end-user is able to establish modern maintenance strategies in the EAF melt shop. Abstract: Decreasing the electrode wear in electric arc furnace has become an important topic due to current high electrode prices.

One way to reduce electrode wear is to lower the average current used in the electric arc furnace EAF processing, which leads to lower electrode tip surface temperatures. This effect is prominent in stainless steelmaking, where the electrode is not submerged in foaming slag. Lowering the arc current also decreases reactive power and transmission losses. However, with constant arc power, lowering the arc current increases the arc voltage, thus increasing the energy loss to the sides.

To protect the furnace lining and side panels, the energy loss to the sides need to be controlled. A possible scenario to use the electrode saving profile is when an EAF is not a production bottleneck. When the EAF must wait for subsequent process steps, more efficient voltage tap profile can be employed.

The aim of this work was to formulate an EAF voltage tap profile for minimum electrode consumption. To control the loss of energy to the sides, a control system based on the on-line optical emission measurement was proposed. The difference between current voltage tap profile was analyzed.

The savings obtained at the site depend on how often the maximum efficiency profile can be employed compared to the current profile, which emphasizes productivity. Co-Authors: C. Plancq , O. Ansseau , D. Sert, H. Ho, J. Born, V. Pridhivi , D. Senk, R. Therefore, formation, transportation and possible consumption of coal residues or char outside the raceway, as well its interaction with other material is vital for the efficient blast furnace BF operation.

In this work done in scope of a common European RFCS project, several coals were used to produce char, to characterise its chemical, physical, petrographic and further properties, and to examine its behaviour and effect on coke and iron burden under different BF simulating conditions.

Analytical, laboratory and pilot scale facilities were applied. Coals were used in two different grain size types: pulverised and granular ones. Experimental results were used for the mathematical modelling. Effect of char on the cohesive zone thickness and permeability could be simulated. Next, industrial trials were performed to evaluate the extent of char transfer within the BF shaft and of the raceway characteristics at high PCI rates. Several techniques for shaft and raceway measurements were applied for these studies at two blast furnaces.

The results of gas and temperature measurements gave new insights regarding the impact of high coal injection rates on the BF inner state and showed that fine dust was actually carried out with the gas, but was condensed in the gas sampling pipe. In addition, several measurement techniques were developed and applied for raceway monitoring. Measurements of temperature distribution in the raceway were done under various blast furnace conditions including changing coal injection rate at an industrial BF.

Abstract: Among numerous measures to accelerate the PC conversion within the blast furnace BF raceway, local increase of oxygen concentration is the most common one. On the other hand, the presence of cold media oxygen in the vicinity of the coal stream might affect its ignition and combustion negatively.

A minor amount of coke oven gas COG may increase the temperature and hence improve the coal conversion. To examine this effect, laboratory trials were performed using the Multifunctional Injection Rig for Ironmaking MIRI under blast furnace simulating conditions. The results testified an improved conversion degree of coal while adding the COG.

The temperature increase is measurable in the reaction chamber and the off-gas stream. Optical microscopy of the original PC particles and residues after reaction confirm the findings of the off-gas analysis and the increase in temperature during the experiments with addition of COG. The thermogravimetric analysis was applied to determine and to compare the behavior of coal in different atmospheres including an atmosphere with COG.

Furthermore, a stand at one tuyere at a modern BF was erected and tests were performed targeting the observation of the ignition behavior of coal at different COG rates, using a camera image analysis system. Abstract: The hot blast system is key ancillary plant equipment with respect to safe and stable operations during a long blast furnace campaign.

Hot blast stove designs have been optimized to such an extent that in some cases, their lifetimes have surpassed the campaign lengths of the associated blast furnaces by a substantial margin, with the exception of the burner and a few critical areas. This article presents recent developments with respect to designing, building new and operating existing hot blast systems for a long lifetime and at optimized performance.

These developments include fundamental improvements such as dome combustion designs as well as increasingly comprehensive packages for inspection, assessment and maintenance techniques. Examples of such techniques are burner replacement with the hot blast system at operating temperature, improved double shell approaches and TOFD measurement applications.

Abstract: Steel production generates vast amounts of by-products e. The ever-stronger regulation regarding disposal and the potential benefit from recovering valuable elements iron, lime, magnesia, zinc, … contained in the by-products, some of them being considered as Critical Raw Materials in Europe, have driven steelmakers to develop processes to turn waste into source of raw materials and approach the goal of a zero-waste practice.

Due to their powdery nature, some by-products can hardly be introduced in a furnace as secondary raw materials without pre-agglomeration. Traditional agglomeration technologies briquetting, pelletizing require a binder to provide the agglomerates the adequate mechanical resistance and enable their handling without generating large amounts of fines.

Aside from their costs, binders reduce by-products recycling efficiency rate, can require curing time hence handling and storage costs. They also require supplemental energy for their burn-up and generate environmental problems. Binder-free compaction technology relies on subjecting a powder without any additive to uniaxial punching efforts up to MPa, leading to agglomerates called tablets.

In this paper, EAF by-products slags, dust and refractory fines behavior under compression is studied using binder-free compaction technology. Based on the provided by-products compositions, several mixes are elaborated to aim at reducing the amount of primary raw materials lime, magnesia , at proceeding to iterative zinc enrichment and at extending the refractory walls lifetime by achieving MgO saturation of the slag.

Results demonstrate that any of the three studied by-products can be combined in optimized and valuable mixes yielding binder-free compaction tablets whose mechanical resistance, assessed by crushing and drop tests, is in accordance with the requirements of the metal making industry. Abstract: M. Javurek1, P. The complexity of the casting process and the ever-increasing quality demands require a well-founded knowledge of the interaction between the electromagnetic actuators and the liquid steel flow.

Plant trials are not sufficient to build up this knowledge. Numerical modelling and simulations provide a better and more detailed view and are therefore crucial for understanding the interaction between the electromagnetic fields and the liquid steel flow. The work presented here is part of an on-going research to bridge the gap between the liquid steel flow and the grain structure of the end product.

The focus of this paper lies on the liquid steel flow modified by the employed traveling magnetic fields and the investigations rely mainly on numerical simulations. Various modelling approaches with differing complexities are used to simulate linear electromagnetic stirring in the secondary cooling zone of a slab caster. These models are then ranked in terms of accuracy and computational effort. The best model is chosen to investigate the influence of various stirring parameters, stirring modes and stirring positions onto the liquid steel flow.

With these results, further conclusions for the real casting process can be drawn. In contrast to many other simulation systems this new modular approach is able to bring together process data and new enhancements in physically based and empirical microstructure simulations. The system is designed to be easily extendable to new data sources, processes and products. A modern web application makes the simulations usable for a wide range of user groups e.

The combination of physical approaches and data driven modelling makes well-founded estimates and optimization of alloy concepts and process parameters for improved material properties of hot rolled strips possible.

Compared to state of the art process controls with neural network this approach gives insight to the microstructure in every single process step like, reheating, rolling, cooling and coiling. Here we will demonstrate the validity of the system for a wide range of steels from deep drawing steels over carbon steels to complex phase steels. Abstract: The blast furnace is the most important aggregate for hot metal production. In around 1. A modern blast furnace is equipped with hundreds of sensors delivering information about local temperatures, pressures, gas compositions, etc.

Nevertheless, even after more than hundred years of blast furnace ironmaking, it is not possible to directly measure information about the current process state like position of process zones, homogeneity of gas flow through the whole stack, etc. In consequence it is task of the operators to interpret all available data and to deduce to the inner stack state. With the raising number and complexity of measurement data this task gets more challenging. Furthermore, with increasing number and quality fluctuations of charged raw materials the stack processes are more and more difficult to control.

The soft sensor concept has been developed to deduce the internal process parameters, which are of real interest, by exploitation of numerous measurements of auxiliary quantities. During the last years measuring techniques like 2D measurement of top gas temperatures, 3D burden surface radar, etc. These techniques enable together with innovative simulation methods like CFD-DEM modelling to compute a far more accurate insight in the current blast furnace stack state.

During actual research projects, BFI has developed models basing on the soft sensor concept, in cooperation with steel plant operators and measurement technique providers. They interpret e. These tools are designed to support the blast furnace operators in their daily challenge of correctly interpreting the multitude of available data series. Abstract: Operation managers are constantly assessing the productivity of their processes.

Variations in mineralogy and the presence of impurities, not only influence on the effectiveness of the processes, but also increase production costs. Online chemical analysis of material flows directly on site is critical for timeous interventions to improve process performance and eliminate the need for laboratory analysis, often involving hours of delay and potential human error.

Lyncis, using knowledge and experience accumulated in the industrial applications, offers the solution for stable accurate online measurements under production conditions, where many factors such as mineralogy, grain size, moisture, etc. Our analyzers use fully safe laser optical emission technology without hazardous radiation, provide long-term stable calibration, easy and low-cost maintenance.

Abstract: In , Already today in China, many integrated mills partially convert their operations to EAF technology. EAF operations are very flexible in terms of raw material used and steel grades produced. In order to be competitive a good material efficiency metallic yield, but also process material consumptions like electrodes or refractories and a good energy efficiency electrical and chemical energy are essential.

This paper gives an overview of the latest global EAF performances in terms of material and energy efficiency in the different regions and for different technologies e. Furthermore, it describes several industry examples how to improve material and energy efficiency in EAF operations based on new methodologies e. Finite Network Method or by applying profound process and technology expertise for optimization. In conclusion, an outlook about future EAF operations and performance will be given.

Abstract: Almost the entire steel industry is currently driven by initiatives and CAPEX projects for improving operational competitiveness, safety levels and environmental footprint. Industry 4. In fact, skilled people will become even more important in the future, in order to understand, maintain and improve the new technologies and complex systems. By experience, BSW is convinced that the road to success is a well-qualified and motivated workforce. This paper describes the history and the outlook of a unique system for qualifying steelmakers: The Badische Training Model.

Established in in a rural area, the mini-mill had a design capacity of , tpy. An unskilled and inexperienced workforce initially operated it. Today, BSW is one of the most productive and efficient mini-mills in the world with a current crude steel capacity of 2. Today, BSW has established a sophisticated and nationwide-awarded training concept for newcomers, while it also strongly focuses on the continuous multi-skilling of its workforce.

To cope with future workforce requirements and to overcome the issue of decreasing birth rates, BSW applies several innovative concepts. Since , more than 8, steelmakers from different countries were trained in the Badische mini-mill philosophy in order to learn and create their own success story. Abstract: In the past years, Tenova has launched a number of pilot projects to identify opportunities for applications of artificial intelligence techniques to find new ways of bringing value to its customers.

One project was carried out using the data from a BOF furnace in a customer plant. The goal was to predict the final steel temperature based on the composition and temperature of the input material hot metal, scrap, additions in the BOF vessel, in order to make optimal use of the charged material and improve the efficiency of the downstream steel process. Another project aimed at controlling cassette penetration and strip tension in a tension leveler machine for an Aluminum annealing and chemical treatment line, to improve product quality and system availability as well as reduce roll wear.

Yet another project for a steel making plant was to classify scrap material automatically from incoming truck images and images of the load on the ground, according to specifications. The goal was to speed up the classification process and improve its accuracy.

For these and other projects different machine learning algorithms were used, from convolutional neural networks to support vector regression and random forest regression. This paper discusses the results obtained as well as the insight that came from the experience.

The conclusion is that there is definitely scope for applying machine learning models in steel plants with benefits limited only by the quality of the ideas and the availability of data. Abstract: It has been long recognized that conducting a unit operation in closed circuit enhances its efficiency. This concept also applies to the agglomeration of green balls in the iron ore pelletizing industry.

Metal7 has relied on classification principles to develop an array of solution to address some limiting constraint of pelletizing plants. Those principles had conducted more recently to the development of Triple Deck , a breakthrough technologies in the world of iron ore pelletizing plant. This presentation outlines the theoretical basis for the development of this new screening process and exposes the benefits for the end-user. From increases in production, his positive impact in bed permeability resulting in higher pellet quality, as well as energy savings.

This revolutionary technology has been developed in partnership with Corem and operated with success in one benchmark pelletizing plant in the Americas. Results of this industrial trial will be share through the presentation, as well as operating experience. Abstract: Environmental emission limits are getting more stringent all over the world since years.

In order to fulfill local emission requirements and even surpass them, modern electric arc furnaces have to consequently monitor and treat their off-gas emissions accordingly. This paper outlines the differences of conventional electric arc furnaces and shaft furnaces in terms of environmental emissions. Emission generation within the furnace as well as different technical solutions for off-gas cleaning and monitoring will be presented.

The different approaches and technical solutions for both furnace types will be highlighted from the emission source to the stack. The conclusion of this paper will show, that differences in final emissions of the two furnace technologies are minimal. Abstract: Since several months, the worldwide scrap availability is getting better and better. The prices for electrical energy are rising thus the efficiency of electric arc furnaces is getting more important.

Possible upgrades to pre heating furnaces very often are limited due to scrap yard and meltshop logistics, meltshop heights above the EAF area, and crane heights as well as lifting capacities. The biggest challenge of a brownfield integration of shaft furnace technologies is to reduce the shaft height without losing the efficiency of the scrap pre heating. Existing meltshop bay as well as crane heights usually limit the possibilities for shaft furnace integrations. Furthermore, the scrap logistics and the shorter tap to tap times have to be considered.

This paper will outline the available technical solutions, offered by PT, and will show the benefits in terms of OPEX and productivity increase by using latest shaft furnace technologies with minor changes to the existing meltshop. The layout was designed with the support of CRM Group and the full engineering and implementation at industrial scale was carried out by ArcelorMittal Fos itself.

The installation was built by Azur Industries. WGR layouts have to be optimised in terms of many targets and constraints reduced emission of specific pollutants, reduced off-gas flow rate, energy savings, productivity and sinter quality, limited available space… which may widely differ from one plant to another. Furthermore, the performances vs costs to be expected for one given WGR layout may depend on local conditions raw materials used, energy costs….

CRM has therefore developed a complete set of tools its sinter model, a flexible sintering pilot station and industrial measurement capacities in order to help its affiliated steel companies to make the best choice and optimise layouts in terms of local objectives and payback time. The selected final layout could even allow a productivity increase.

Simulations results supported also the pre-engineering and economical assessment. First industrial results confirmed the reduction of NOx emissions and showed also a significant improvement in terms of dust emission. Abstract: Sectional strip tension meter - Shapemeter roll Sectional strip tension meter is designed for evaluating of metal strip flatness in cold rolling mills.

The principle of the flatness evaluation is based on measuring of pressure forces of a metal strip in the individual zones of the measuring roll. A visual unit displays measured tensions across the strip in real time on monitor in the form of a column and flat graphical mapping. Depending on the graph shape on the monitor, the operator can make the adjustment of the rolling mill. Abstract: For years, digitization has affected each industry and Industry 4. With Bilfinger Digital Next and the competence gained from decades of experience as industrial services provider , Bilfinger has set out to make its digital solutions for the optimization of maintenance and operations available to the steel industry.

The potential of optimization is undoubtedly present: with the help of the latest artificial intelligence and machine learning technology, individual use cases can be defined within the steel industry. Models are developed to monitor the condition of individual machines with the help of virtual sensors that combine and evaluate all relevant plant data with cloud solutions.

Asset health monitoring, among a variety of additional solutions, allows deep insights improving quality, reducing waste, emissions and energy consumption. Eventually, Bilfinger Digital Next is dedicated to this goal. Abstract: In cold rolling, tribological effects prevailing at the interface of the work roll and strip surface greatly influence the rolling process and the quality of the final cold rolled product. In particular, the amount of iron fines generated in the roll gap significantly influences strip surface cleanliness.

Research work done on this topic has shown that improving the lubrication efficiency especially in the early mill stands helps to avoid excessive wear generation and thus allows to improve the surface quality of the final product. This paper explains the wear mechanism and the influence of strip, process and lubricant parameters on the generation of strip wear in cold rolling. The system is currently operated based on a lubrication table depending on the steel grade and process parameters.

Operational results are presented that demonstrate a reduction of the required rolling forces and power consumptions by improved roll-gap friction. Measurements of the strip surface cleanliness after cold rolling have shown a significant improvement compared to the previously installed conventional emulsion lubrication system. Currently, intelligent model-based lubrication control concepts are being investigated that allow to influence crucial process parameters such as the coefficient of friction or the forward slip.

In the production of ULC steel grades via the RH-process route, Al is first added for deoxidation after the end of decarburization and FeTi after a certain period of separation of alumina particles and the related reduction of the total oxygen content. The FeTi-addition is well known to cause clogging problems in the following casting process. These particles are comparably smaller as the alumina particles and even if thermodynamically unstable, they still exist as a large population of small particles in samples taken from the tundish.

The local supersaturation of Ti and O during the dissolution of the FeTi-particles seems to be the main reason for the nucleation of these inclusions. Sessile drop experiments indicate that the wetting angle between these Ti-containing alumina particles and ULC steel is at the same level as for pure alumina particles.

However, due to only moderate convection of the melt in the ladle after the FeTi-addition, the agglomeration tendency for these particles is low and as previous work has shown, a large number of non-wetting small particles is most critical for clogging. Laboratory experiments and plant observations are in correspondence and indicate some countermeasures for the better control of clogging. Co-Authors: M. Ringhofer, K. Herzog, E.

Tatschl-Unterberger, W. Oberaigner, P. Pennerstorfer, J. Plaul, K. Abstract: A vast amount of companies in the steel industry started digitalization initiatives in the past years. First implementations of those initiatives had been already commissioned successfully.

During the implementation process of such systems it was identified that technology is essential as enabler, however, to make full use of the implemented systems the cultural aspects in a company need to be considered in an equal manner. Especially when software systems are being installed, they also trigger changes in the ways of working in order to untap the full potential of the installed systems.

Software systems supporting business processes are already around for decades and the critical success factors had been researched already quite well thus such implementation challenges are not a novelty to the current digitalization initiatives. Nevertheless, the learning from those past installations is not always considered to the extent required.

This paper shows in a few case studies the critical success factors in selected digitalization projects. One of the digitalization projects shows how the acceptance of the digital twin in a continuous casting machine increased over the years. First installations of digital twins were commissioned decades ago and had basic functionalities to offer.

Over the past years the functionalities of the digital twin developed further providing now plant operators, plant designers and start-up engineers with a package to model, simulate, optimize and control the machine. Another example describes that a Through-Process Optimization system brought transparency along the whole value chain allowing to optimize and control a plant in a holistic manner, making strong cross departmental alignment and top management attention to critical success factors.

A further case study shows that the available process know-how became a critical success factor when installing and optimizing a production management systems to be accepted and fully used by the operators. Abstract: Up until recently ironmaking process optimization systems focused on the production processes of stand-alone operations such as individual sinter plants, pelletizing plants and blast furnaces.

This control has been based on locally-stored recent — and therefore limited — data. Process models convert data into usable information, expert systems judge the process conditions and derive required actions by rule based decision support systems to achieve a standardized operation strategy. These systems provide a digital assistant to supervise the overall plant and to offer decision-making solutions to meet the required KPIs of for example productivity, cost and quality.

Automatic control and decision support systems naturally rely on data: The integration of innovative data sources as Acoustic Measurements, Tuyere Optics and Intelligent Staves into the automation landscape and related benefits are discussed. Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint.

The interaction of these systems with the local optimization systems is described in this paper: Together with the individual process optimization systems Holistic Ironmaking offers an increased degree of transparency and standardization in order to orchestrate the ironmaking plants closer to the optimal operational setpoint. Co-Authors: H. Fritschek, N. Laister, R. Lamplmayr, M. Lehner, H. Lindbichler, B.

Schwarzbauer, D. Ulrich, W. Abstract: Higher demands regarding flexibility is a key request of modern plant operation and hence for the respective automation system. At the same time any downtime of a production facility causes loss of production and can even harm your plant. Especially the complex processes of ironmaking — in particular in blast furnaces and direct reduction plants — require a reliable and highly available automation backbone.

This system has to control the process at any time, deliver sound performance in daily operation and guarantee easy and flexible maintainability. A clearly structured system based on proper system design, advanced programming tools and software management , flexible communication and interfaces, inclusion of smart sensors, simulation with a digital twin for operator training and development of software modifications, online documentation to support the operating and maintenance personnel as well as virtualization concepts, belong to the cornerstones of digitalization — features that are offered by state-of-the-art automation systems.

Abstract: Waste products are actually raw materials in disguise, waiting for a smart person to identify them and put them back into use by an appropriate process. This groundbreaking process is designed to recycle all possible raw material wastes RMWs from an integrated steel plant to produce direct reduced iron DRI. The reduced briquettes with high metallic iron are excellent high-value intermediate products to sell to mini-mills having electric arc furnaces EAF , or to charge in the blast furnace to lower the coke rate as much as possible.

The process is also able to generate power as the by-product. This work presents the development and the technical background of this novel process, which has been developed partially in India and partially in Austria patent application in Austria.

This work also explores the possibility of installing this new technology in Europe as well as in global context. Abstract: The properties of coke play a crucial role in the blast furnace process. Coke, a highly cost intensive raw material, is the most important reducing agent for the furnace. During the burden descend inside a blast furnace, coke undergoes several macro and microscopic changes in its structure due to the combined effect of chemical and mechanical process conditions inside the furnace.

A strong and stable structure of coke is necessary in order to secure smooth movement of the burden as well as to maintain the bed permeability. The surface properties of coke play an important role to influence coke properties. Previous research works have demonstrated the effect of slag penetration in the coke structure due to the change of coke surface caused by Boudouard reaction.

In this work, several blast furnace coke samples of different qualities in terms of their CRI and CSR values are investigated microscopically in order to characterize the topographic nature of their surface. Coke samples before and after CRI tests have been tested and their surface roughness and other topographic parameters are measured along with successive correlation to their reactivity indices. The samples are also analyzed using BET technique to measure their specific surface areas and these values are correlated with the topographic parameters.

The results reveal a better understanding of the changes of surface properties of coke caused by similar conditions as blast furnace. Applications for steel powders include forging tools and structural components for various industries. For large parts, the choice of tool-paths influences the build-rate, the part performance and the distortions in a highly geometry-dependent manner. With weld-path lengths in the range of hundreds of meters, a reliable, automated tool path generation is essential for the usability of LMD processes.

In this contribution, automated tool-path generation approaches are shown and their results are discussed for arbitrary geometries. After generation, the tool-paths are automatically formatted into g-code for experimental build-up and ASCII for a numerical simulation model. Finally, the tool paths are discussed in regards to volume-fill, microstructure and porosity for the experimental samples and temperature flow for the numerical model.

Guidelines are presented for the geometry-dependent selection of path-strategies. Abstract: Paul Wurth works on the advancement of durable engineering concepts and design solutions for BF-hearth side walls since many decades. Preventing structural failures in BF-hearth lining already in the early BF campaign on the one hand and avoiding accelerated hearth lining wear on the other hand will be discussed in the paper as well.

Different classical BF-hearth lining concepts and designs will be compared and judged regarding their success. Is it necessary to change the mind-set and develop new BF-hearth lining concepts for high specific hot metal production rates and significantly prolonged BF-hearth lining life campaigns? Abstract: The metal industry is facing ever stringent environmental regulations leading to more and more efficient off-gas systems. These new off-gas systems generate additional by-products in the form of dusts and sludges.

At the same time, the quality and scarcity of raw materials is becoming a real issue and metal producers have to maximize their resource efficiency in order to maintain their competitiveness. Its objective is to synergistically combine by-products from different sectors in view of their recycling in the production of FeMn alloys.

This paper presents the different cold and hot stage pre-processing steps required before recycling. Indeed, to be recyclable the by-products mix has to comply with process requirements such as mechanical strength. Several binders have been tested and optimised in order to minimize the cost of cold pre-processing while providing the required mechanical properties. The final feasibility assessment will be done in during a semi-industrial campaign using a kW Smelting Arc Furnace.

Abstract: Materials and processes for the third-generation advanced high strength steels W. Bleck1, F. Ma1, C. AHSS have been developed in recent years. The innovation and development of the new generation AHSS brings ecological and economic potential in the automotive industry for reducing automotive weight, improving fuel efficiency, and decreasing CO2 emission. The microstructure design concepts of the 3. To achieve the sophisticated microstructure, multi-step thermal processing routes are employed.

In this case, the manganese partitioning plays an essential role in stabilizing austenite. As a consequence, the combination of the unique characteristics of each microstructural component contributes to the extraordinary mechanical properties of the 3. Specifically, the transformation-induced-plasticity TRIP effect in the metastable austenite improves the strain-hardening rate effectively, leading to an excellent combination of high strength and good ductility.

In the current paper, the alloy design concept, microstructure characteristics, mechanical properties as well as potential applications of the 3. AHSS are summarized. The critical aspects in controlling stability and fraction of retained austenite in the new generation AHSS are explained. The requirements for the process design and the new annealing concepts are emphasized.

They consist of a number of high-speed, intelligent and yet inexpensive cameras that are arranged closely next to each other in groups — the clusters. The distance between two cameras is 20mm, each cluster consists of 16 cameras, cameras are used for two-meter inspection.

By lining up multiple cluster modules next to each other, it is possible to measure foil, strip and plate of any width as well as long products. The innovative technology makes the clusters highly interesting for a number of measurement tasks in the steel, aluminium and nonferrous metal industries for cold and hot applications. Information on defects is extremely important not only for quality assurance, but also to avoid broken strip.

Due to the high resolution and steep angle of sight, the technology can also be used economically for the first time for inline measurement of slit strip width in slitting lines. Especially for tinplate and aluminium packaging material camera cluster systems are applicable for detection of pinholes in the size of several micrometer.

Wherever the flatness, levelness, contour is necessary to be measured, the camera cluster technology in combination with laser line projection laser triangulation principle is used. In cut-to-length lines this technology is applicable for sheet and plate dimension measurement such length, width, out of squareness, diagonals and camber. IMS also uses the innovative technology for surface inspection as well.

For long products camera cluster are used for straightness measurement. This development raises increasing demands on avoiding surface defects during the production of strip steel, which is typically used by OEMs for outer panel applications. Aim of this presentation is to illustrate how thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG tkSE meets this requirement by the example of using a contactless cleaning device at the in-line skin-pass mill SPM of its continuous annealing line CAL : This SPM operates without using any liquid medium for cleaning neither working nor back-up rolls in order to avoid rust dots on the uncoated steel surface.

Due to that, dirt appears and may result in dents into the strip surface, which represent major quality defects. To reduce surface defects caused by dirt while keeping the SPM operating in the wanted dry mode a contactless cleaning device has been developed by tkSE. In recent years, this procedure of contactless cleaning was successfully implemented and industrially tested at the tkSE's CAL in Dortmund.

Today, an automatized contactless cleaning device is continuously operating in this line with a positive effect on dirt-related surface defects. Abstract: Primetals Technologies has developed a new vertical sinter shaft cooler that is not only highly energy-efficient but is also much more environmentally friendly than conventional circular sinter coolers.

It is based on a counter-flow cooling process, so heat transfer efficiency is significantly higher than in a conventional sinter cooler. The shaft cooler design allows the optimized utilization of sensible heat contained in the hot sinter. With this approach the temperature of the cooling air exiting the shaft can be maximized and more efficiently applied for the generation of steam.

The total cooler off air of the process is finally cleaned in a dedusting unit which gives the environmental benefit of zero diffuse dust emissions. The system consists of a pan conveyor for charging the shaft cooler, the shaft cooler, a heat recovery system and a bag filter unit. Operational results and achievements of the first installed shaft cooler will be presented. The aim of the paper is to illustrate a continuous processing route for AM metal powders production developed to maximize productivity rates, efficiency and flexibility while minimizing production costs and environmental impact.

Together with other benefits, this processing system is designed to face the challenge of the industrialization phase relevant to AM Powder production processes. Abstract: Descaling is an important step in the rolling process. The oxide is removed from the surface of the product to improve surface quality and maintain the rolls. Nozzle selection and header design are important parts of an effective descaling system.

The nozzles need to be sized and placed, so they provide sufficient impact force to remove the oxide with the minimal amount of water possible. Headers need to be sized to maximize the impact performance of the nozzles. Impact testing along with CFD analysis can help to determine if a header has been properly designed to provide maximum impact force.

CFD analysis can determine the fluid approach velocity along with the turbulence level in the header. The spray pattern of the nozzle can then be measured for impact force and distribution under different approach velocities and turbulence levels. Comparing these to a nozzle tested under an ideal no turbulence condition can determine minimum header size requirements based on nozzle capacity and pressure. Optimizing the header can help to improve performance and minimize energy costs.

This paper will show the results of several existing installations where both CFD and impact testing was used to optimize a descaling operation in hot strip mills and plate mills. Abstract: With the mainstream adoption of technologies, such as Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Data Analytics and Digitalization, many industries are exploring these areas to understand how each solves unique challenges in their operational value chain.

This paper explores non-steel producing industries to see what solutions are being adopted, problems they are solving, and how this relates to the steel industry. Further, this paper discusses how Midrex is making these technologies available in Midrex Connect, a connected services platform, designed to help customers understand Industry 4. Abstract: Blast furnace hearth lifetime extension remains one of the biggest challenges within the whole integrated steelmaking system. Savings associated with a long hearth campaign are difficult to estimate but are huge.

The eternal hearth goal may appear impossible today but our current path holds promise. Hearth lifetimes over recent decades have increased incrementally from around 5 years to over 20 years. We are now looking for stepwise improvements. Saint-Gobain Ceramic Cup technology has been one of the key factors in hearth lifetime extension especially following adoption of sialon bonded corundum in There is already very clear evidence that the first two sialon bonded corundum qualities have lasted 8 to 10 years before the self-protecting layer on carbon needs stabilising.

Saint-Gobain announces the launch of a new quality for Ceramic Cup. This last generation of Alumina Sialon Bonded material was especially developed to withstand the severe and extreme conditions existing inside the hearth. This new enhanced quality exhibits outstanding properties, surpassing the good and proven performances of former products. Major optimizations were necessary to reach this result from recipe to reactive sintering process, making this material perfectly designed to protect the hearth carbon lining.

The corrosion resistance to iron and slag has been significantly improved to reduce kinetic and chemical erosion of the refractory including the critical interface iron - slag - refractory. In addition, the excellent refractoriness of Al2O3 Sialon bonded materials is maintained with resistance to CO environment and high thermo-mechanical stability.

Finally, the resistance to chemical attacks and oxidation has been improved. In this paper, this new material will be benchmarked against other materials, tested or currently used in the blast furnace to highlight the main technical advantages. Such emissions may involve complicated relationship with neighbourhood of steel Plants.

In these cases, many therapeutic procedures are necessary because each tooth must be restored to obtain the correct anatomical contour and recover the occlusal vertical dimension OVD. This clinical report reviews the principles involved in the clinical indication for an overlay RPD, as well as the necessary planning and execution, to discuss the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of this treatment, identifying the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of this procedure through the presentation of a clinical case.

The main advantages of this type of treatment are its simplicity, reversibility, and relatively low cost; however, further studies are needed to ensure the efficacy of this treatment option. An ontology-driven, case-based clinical decision support model for removable partial denture design. We present the initial work toward developing a clinical decision support model for specific design of removable partial dentures RPDs in dentistry.

During the case-based reasoning process, a cosine similarity algorithm was applied to calculate similarity values between input patients and standard ontology cases. A group of designs from the most similar cases were output as the final results. To evaluate this model, the output designs of RPDs for randomly selected patients were compared with those selected by professionals. An area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic AUC-ROC was created by plotting true-positive rates against the false-positive rate at various threshold settings.

The precision at position 5 of the retrieved cases was 0. The mean average of precision MAP was 0. All the metrics demonstrated the efficiency of our model. This methodology merits further research development to match clinical applications for designing RPDs. This paper is organized as follows. After the introduction and description of the basis for the paper, the evaluation and results are presented in Section 2. Section 3 provides a discussion of the methodology and results. Section 4 describes the details of the ontology, similarity algorithm, and application.

Influence of implant inclination associated with mandibular class I removable partial denture. The aim of this study was to use two-dimensional finite element method to evaluate the displacement and stress distribution transmitted by a distal extension removable partial denture DERPD associated with an implant placed at different inclinations 0, 5, 15, and 30 degrees in the second molar region of the edentulous mandible ridge.

Six hemimandibular models were created: model A, only with the presence of the natural tooth 33; model B, similar to model A, with the presence of a conventional DERPD replacing the missing teeth; model C, similar to the previous model, with a straight implant 0 degrees in the distal region of the ridge, under the denture base; model D, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 5 degrees in the mesial direction; model E, similar to model C, with the implant angled at 15 degrees in the mesial direction; and model F, similar to ME, with the implant angled at 30 degrees in the mesial direction.

The force applied was vertical of 50 N on each cusp tip. The results showed that the introduction of the RPD overloaded the supporting structures of the RPD and that the introduction of the implant helped to relieve the stresses of the mucosa alveolar, cortical bone, and trabecular bone. The best stress distribution occurred in model D with the implant angled at 5 degrees. The use of an implant as a support decreased the displacement of alveolar mucosa for all inclinations simulated.

The stress distribution transmitted by the DERPD to the supporting structures was improved by the use of straight or slightly inclined implants. According to the displacement analysis and von Mises stress, it could be expected that straight or slightly inclined implants do not represent biomechanical risks to use. We developed an ontological paradigm to represent knowledge of a patient's oral conditions and denture component parts. To introduce a method of digital modeling and fabricating removable partial denture RPD frameworks using self-developed software for RPD design and rapid manufacturing system.

The three-dimensional data of two partially dentate dental casts were obtained using a three-dimensional crossing section scanner. Self-developed software package for RPD design was used to decide the path of insertion and to design different components of RPD frameworks.

The components included occlusal rest, clasp, lingual bar, polymeric retention framework and maxillary major connector. The design procedure for the components was as following: first, determine the outline of the component. Second, build the tissue surface of the component using the scanned data within the outline. Third, preset cross section was used to produce the polished surface.

Finally, different RPD components were modeled respectively and connected by minor connectors to form an integrated RPD framework. The finished data were imported into a self-developed selective laser melting SLM machine and metal frameworks were fabricated directly. RPD frameworks for the two scanned dental casts were modeled with this self-developed program and metal RPD frameworks were successfully fabricated using SLM method.

The finished metal frameworks fit well on the plaster models. The self-developed computer aided design and computer aided manufacture CAD-CAM system for RPD design and fabrication has completely independent intellectual property rights. It provides a new method of manufacturing metal RPD frameworks. Microbiological analysis of biomaterial surface in dental prosthesis showed the most common colonizing gram-positive species to be S.

The highest concentration of C. Impact of implant support on mandibular free-end base removable partial denture : theoretical study. This study investigated the impact of implant support on the development of shear force and bending moment in mandibular free-end base removable partial dentures RPDs.

Three theoretical test models of unilateral mandibular free-end base RPDs were constructed to represent the base of tooth replacement, as follows: Model 1: first and second molars M1 and M2 ; Model 2: second premolar P2 , M1, and M2; and Model 3: first premolar P1 , P2, M1, and M2. The implant support located either at M1 or M2 sites. The occlusal loading was concentrated at each replacement tooth to calculate the stress resultants developed in the RPD models using the free-body diagrams of shear force and bending moment.

There was a trend of reduction in the peak shear force and bending moment when the base was supported by implant. However, the degree of reduction varied with the location of implant support. The shear forces and bending moments subjected to mandibular free-end base RPDs were found to decrease with the addition of implant support. However, the impact of implant support varied with the location of implant in this theoretical study.

Numerical simulation of the casting process of titanium removable partial denture frameworks. The objective of this work was to study the filling incompleteness and porosity defects in titanium removal partial denture frameworks by means of numerical simulation. Two frameworks, one for lower jaw and one for upper jaw, were chosen according to dentists' recommendation to be simulated. Both mold filling and solidification of the castings with different sprue designs e.

The shrinkage porosity was quantitatively predicted by a feeding criterion, the potential filling defect and gas pore sensitivity were estimated based on the filling and solidification results. A satisfactory sprue design with process parameters was finally recommended for real casting trials four replica for each frameworks. All the frameworks were successfully cast. Through X-ray radiographic inspections it was found that all the castings were acceptably sound except for only one case in which gas bubbles were detected in the grasp region of the frame.

It is concluded that numerical simulation aids to achieve understanding of the casting process and defect formation in titanium frameworks, hence to minimize the risk of producing defect casting by improving the sprue design and process parameters.

Recent advances in dental titanium casting machines allow for the use of titanium for crowns, fixed partial dentures By the end of the s, titanium found a niche in dental implantology In the field of dental implantology , evidence suggests that metal corrosion and allergenicity may be important. Finite element analysis of an implant-assisted removable partial denture. Standard RPDs are not originally designed to accommodate a posterior implant load point.

The null hypothesis is that the introduction of posteriorly placed implants into an RPD has no effect on the load distribution. A Faro Arm scan was used to extract the geometrical data of a human partially edentulous mandible.

A standard plus regular neck 4. The model incorporated an RPD and was loaded with a bilateral force of N. FEA identified that the metal framework developed high strain patterns on the major and minor connectors, and the acrylic was subjected to deformation, which could lead to acrylic fractures. The ideal position of the neutral axis was calculated to be 0. A potentially destructive mismatch of strain distribution was identified between the acrylic and metal framework, which could be a factor in the failure of the acrylic.

The metal framework showed high strain patterns on the major and minor connectors around the teeth, while the implant components transferred the load directly to the acrylic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of team-based learning TBL methodology on dental students' retention of knowledge regarding removable partial denture RPD treatment.

The process of learning RPD treatment requires that students first acquire foundational knowledge and then use critical thinking skills to apply that knowledge to a variety of clinical situations. The traditional approach to teaching, characterized by a reliance on lectures, is not the most effective method for learning clinical applications. To address the limitations of that approach, the teaching methodology of the RPD preclinical course at the University of Florida was changed to TBL, which has been shown to motivate student learning and improve clinical performance.

A written examination was constructed to compare the impact of TBL with that of traditional teaching regarding students' retention of knowledge and their ability to evaluate, diagnose, and treatment plan a partially edentulous patient with an RPD prosthesis. Students taught using traditional and TBL methods took the same examination. The mean score for the TBL class 0. The results of the study suggest that TBL methodology is a promising approach to teaching RPD with successful outcomes. Comparative study of circumferential clasp retention force for titanium and cobalt-chromium removable partial dentures.

The interest in using titanium to fabricate removable partial denture RPD frameworks has increased, but there are few studies to support its use. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups, corresponding to. No polishing procedures were performed to ensure uniformity. Only nodules and burs were carefully removed with tungsten burs under magnification when necessary.

With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure.

This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures RPD , to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element FE model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization BESO technique.

Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds PPT , potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption.

The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. An analytical model to design circumferential clasps for laser-sintered removable partial dentures. Clasps of removable partial dentures RPDs often suffer from plastic deformation and failure by fatigue; a common complication of RPDs.

A new technology for processing metal frameworks for dental prostheses based on laser-sintering, which allows for precise fabrication of clasp geometry, has been recently developed. This study sought to propose a novel method for designing circumferential clasps for laser-sintered RPDs to avoid plastic deformation or fatigue failure.

An analytical model for designing clasps with semicircular cross-sections was derived based on mechanics. The Euler-Bernoulli elastic curved beam theory and Castigliano's energy method were used to relate the stress and undercut with the clasp length, cross-sectional radius, alloy properties, tooth type, and retention force. Finite element analysis FEA was conducted on a case study and the resultant tensile stress and undercut were compared with the analytical model predictions.

Pull-out experiments were conducted on laser-sintered cobalt-chromium Co-Cr dental prostheses to validate the analytical model results. The proposed circumferential clasp design model yields results in good agreement with FEA and experiments.

The results indicate that Co-Cr circumferential clasps in molars that are 13mm long engaging undercuts of 0. However, shorter circumferential clasps such as those in premolars present high stresses and cannot avoid plastic deformation or fatigue failure. Laser-sintered Co-Cr circumferential clasps in molars are safe, whereas they are susceptible to failure in premolars. Effect of different cleansers on the surface of removable partial denture. Removable partial dentures RPD demand specific hygienic cleaning and the combination of brushing with immersion in chemical solutions has been the most recommended method for control of biofilm.

However, the effect of the cleansers on metallic components has not been widely investigated. This study evaluated the effect of different cleansers on the surface of RPD. The surface changes and tarnishes were examined with a scanning electronic microscopy SEM. In addition, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry EDS analysis was carried out at representative areas. EDS analysis revealed the presence of oxygen for specimens in contact with both MI and NaOCl solutions, which might suggest that the two solutions promoted the oxidation of the surfaces, thus leading to spot corrosion.

A critical review of selected relevant publications assessed clinical efficacy and effectiveness of implant-assisted removable partial dentures IARPDs with implant survival and failure rates, biologic and technical complications, and maintenance and patient satisfaction after rehabilitation as outcomes. Reports on outcomes from human studies conducted between 1 January and 31 May were considered.

A quality assessment of the identified full-text articles was performed to assess risk of bias and to evaluate heterogeneity. Only nine studies were included, and all nine demonstrated high risk of bias. The mean observation period ranged from 1 to 10 years, and only four studies included at least one control group. The studies reported implant survival rates of IARPDs were associated with a higher frequency of technical complications and maintenance interventions than biologic complications.

Only two question-based studies assessed patient satisfaction before and after treatment, and both reported marked improvement. A meta-analysis was not possible because of substantial heterogeneity in study design. Limited availability of robust publications related to the selected review topic precluded significant conclusions. Nonetheless, the preliminary assessment suggests that IARPDs are a simple and cost-effective approach to providing symmetric prosthesis support and stability, plus improved patient satisfaction.

Why do dentists struggle with removable partial denture design? An assessment of financial and educational issues. Published studies in the international dental literature illustrate that the quality of prescription and fabrication of cobalt-chromium removable partial dentures CCRPDs by general dental practitioners frequently fail to comply with ethical and legal requirements.

The reasons cited for this in the past have broadly related to either financial or educational issues. The aim of this investigation is to determine the effect of financial and educational factors on the quality of CCRPD design and fabrication by general dental practitioners. This investigation was completed in two parts.

These sought information relating to the quality of written instructions for CCRPDs received by these laboratories, and details of the remunerative scheme under which they were being provided. This sought information relating to their attitudes, opinions, and educational and clinical experiences of CCRPD design and fabrication.

One-fifth of respondents n. Managing the maxillary partially edentulous patient with extensive anterior tooth loss and advanced periodontal disease using a removable partial denture : a clinical report. The treatment modality, a continuous occlusal rest removable partial denture , not only restored missing teeth but also stabilized the remaining dentition in a patient with advanced periodontal attachment loss.

By engaging the guiding planes at the mesial surfaces of the abutments anteriorly and also the distal surfaces of the abutments posteriorly, the remaining teeth, with varying amounts of mobility, were splinted together by the framework. This conservative treatment option allows flexibility for easy repair during the life span of the prosthesis. Consecutive patients with shortened dental arches were recruited from the Department of Prosthodontics, Foshan Chancheng Hospital of Stomatology.

The Chinese version of OHIP was administered to each subject before treatment and after treatment. The subjective outcomes of removable partial dentures therapy on SDA were collected and the pre- and post-treatment scores of the Chinese version of OHIP were compared.

The main impacts of shortened dental arch with intact anterior region affecting patients' OHRQOL are physical disability. Composite resin root coping with a keeper for magnetic attachment for replacing the missing coronal portion of a removable partial denture abutment. Numerous methods for replacing missing removable partial denture abutments have been introduced, however, most of them are time consuming and require several visits to complete the procedure.

Since magnetic attachments can provide support and bracing as well as retention for overdenture abutments, the remaining tooth root structure can be used to support the coping with the keeper. Through the use of composite resin and adhesive material, improved retention of the keeper to the root may be achieved, along with improved esthetics.

This article describes a method for replacing the missing abutment of a removable partial denture with a magnetic attachment, and a composite resin coping with a keeper. Management of long span partially edentulous maxilla with fixed removable denture prosthesis. Restoration of a long span partially edentulous maxilla with tooth supported prosthesis is challenging because of inherent anatomic limitations and unfavourable biomechanics present after the loss of teeth.

A tooth supported fixed- removable prosthesis is a treatment option for restoration of such long span partially edentulous maxillary arches. This prosthesis meets the requirements for esthetics, phonetics, comfort, and hygiene, as well as favourable biomechanical stress distribution to the remaining natural tooth abutments.

This article presents a procedure for fabrication of a fixed- removable prosthesis that has cement-retained custom cast bar metal substructure and a ball attachment retained removable superstructure prosthesis. Maxillary rehabilitation using a removable partial denture with attachments in a cleft lip and palate patient: a clinical report. CLP patients often need multidisciplinary treatment to restore oral function and esthetics.

This paper describes the oral rehabilitation of a CLP adult patient who had maxillary bone and tooth loss, resulting in decreased occlusal vertical dimension. Functional and cosmetic rehabilitation was achieved using a maxillary removable partial denture RPD attached to telescopic crowns.

The influence of removable partial dentures on the periodontal health of abutment and non-abutment teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of removable partial dentures RPD on the periodontal health of abutment and non-abutment teeth. A total patients with RPD participated in this study. These clinical measurements were taken immediately before insertion the RPD, then one and 3 months after insertion.

The level of significance was set at P 0. With carefully planned prosthetic treatment and adequate maintenance of the oral and denture hygiene, we can prevent the periodontal diseases. Microbiological and clinical assessment of the abutment and non-abutment teeth of partial removable denture wearers. The aim of this study was assessing the changes in both clinical and microbiological parameters of healthy individuals after rehabilitation with removable partial denture RPD.

Clinical and microbiological parameters of abutment, non-abutment, and antagonist teeth were assessed at baseline RPD installation and after 7, 30, 90, and days of function. The Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique was used to identify and quantify up to 43 different microbial species from subgingival biofilm samples. Probing depth, gingival recession, and bleeding on probing were also investigated over time.

The total and individual microbial genome counts were shown significantly increased after days with no significant differences between abutment, non-abutment, or antagonist teeth. Streptococcus spp. Abutment teeth presented higher values of gingival recession when compared with non-abutment or antagonist teeth, irrespectively time of sampling p denture loading for both abutment and non-abutment teeth with no significant differences regarding the microbial profile over time.

Bleeding on probing and probing depth showed no significant difference between groups over time whereas gingival recession increased in the abutment teeth. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of removable partial dentures RPD on the periodontal health of abutment and non-abutment teeth.

Conclusions: With carefully planned prosthetic treatment and adequate maintenance of the oral and denture hygiene, we can prevent the periodontal diseases. The aims of this study are to analyze the surface stress of the periodontal supporting bone of the bilateral distol extension removable partial denture which is retained by using intra-coronal or extra-coronal semi-precision attachment, and to characterize the biomechanics of these two designs by using a strain gauge.

A fresh human mandible specimen with 76 67 missing and six bilateral partial removable denture retained with six semi-precision attachments were made, including three attachments with intra-coronal studs and three attachments with extra-coronal vertical bars.

A total of six 45 degrees rosette strain gauges were bonded at six prepared points on the surface of the mandible to measure the surface stress, including the middle point between 76 of the buccal edentulous alveolar crest area under the denture base verge point 1 , the distal buccal cervix of 5 point 2 , the buccal apical area of 5 point 3 , the buccal middle area of 34 roots point 4, 5 , the lingual middle area of 5 root point 6. The static loads of 14N, 28N and 42N were applied vertically, buccally 45 degrees, lingually 45 degrees at the middle point of the 6 6 occlusal surface.

The stress characteristics of these two types of attachments were compared and analyzed. In most situations, the stress of these two semi-precision attachments showed significant differences. The vertical load: The stress values of these intra-coronal and extra-coronal attachments at points 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 differed significantly P sigma extra. Buccal loads: The stress values of these intra-coronal and extra-coronal attachments at points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 differed significantly P sigma extra.

Lingual loads: The stress. This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures RPDs and the same RPD abutment tooth not isolated. A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest which was not isolated ; 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites.

Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works Software. In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa.

In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate.

We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis. Influence of posterior dental arch length on brain activity during chewing in patients with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures.

It is well known that shortened dental arch decreases masticatory function. However, its potential to change brain activity during mastication is unknown. The present study investigates the effect of a shortened posterior dental arch with mandibular removable partial dentures RPDs on brain activity during gum chewing. Eleven subjects with missing mandibular molars mean age, Brain activity during gum chewing with RPDs containing full dental arch and lacking artificial molars shortened dental arch was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Additionally, masticatory function was evaluated for each dental arch type. Food comminuting and mixing ability and the perceived chewing ability were significantly lower in subjects with a shortened dental arch than those with a full dental arch P Influence of ridge inclination and implant localization on the association of mandibular Kennedy class I removable partial denture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tendency of displacement of the supporting structures of the distal extension removable partial denture DERPD associated to the implant with different inclinations of alveolar ridge and implant localizations through a two-dimensional finite-element method.

Sixteen mandibular models were fabricated, presenting horizontal, distally descending, distally ascending, or descending-ascending ridges. A force of 50 N was applied on the cusp tips of the teeth, with 5 points of loading of 10 N. The results were visualized by displacement maps. For all ridge inclinations, the assembly of the DERPD with distal plate retained by an anterior implant exhibited the lowest requisition of the supporting structures. The highest tendency of displacement occurred in the model with distally ascending ridge with incisal rest.

It was concluded that the association of the implant decreased the displacement of the DERPD, and the anterior positioning of the implant associated to the DERPD with the distal plate preserved the supporting structures for all ridges.

Objective: To evaluate the processing accuracy, internal quality and suitability of the titanium alloy frameworks of removable partial denture RPD fabricated by selective laser melting SLM technique, and to provide reference for clinical application. Methods: The plaster model of one clinical patient was used as the working model, and was scanned and reconstructed into a digital working model. A RPD framework was designed on it.

Three-dimensional 3D optical scanner was used to scan and obtain the 3D data of the frameworks and the data was compared with the original computer aided design CAD model to evaluate their processing precision. The traditional casting pure titanium frameworks was used as the control group, and the internal quality was analyzed by X-ray examination. Finally, the fitness of the frameworks was examined on the plaster model.

No visible pores, cracks and other internal defects was detected in the frameworks. The framework fits on the plaster model completely, and its tissue surface fitted on the plaster model well. There was no obvious movement. All articles published in English and published in the period from until April were eligible to be included in this review.

The total number of articles contained the search terms in any part of the article including titles, abstracts, or article texts were screened, which resulted in articles. After exclusion of irrelevant and duplicated articles, 12 papers were included in this systematic review. Results: All the included studies were case reports, except one study, which was a case series that recruited 10 study participants. The visual and tactile examination in the cast or clinically in the patient's mouth was the most-used method for assessment of the fit of RPDs.

From all included studies, only one has assessed the internal fit between RPDs and oral tissues using silicone registration material. The vast majority of included studies found that the fit of RPDs ranged from satisfactory to excellent fit. Evaluation of bone insertion level of support teeth in class I mandibular removable partial denture associated with an osseointegrated implant: a study using finite element analysis. For results, von Mises Stress Maps were plotted. Stress distribution was concentrated on implant and retention system.

Use of distal guide plate decreased stress levels on abutment tooth and cortical and trabecular bone. Tooth apex of models with reduced periodontal support presented increased stress when using distal rest. The path of placement of a removable partial denture : a microscope based approach to survey and design. This article reviews the topic of how to identify and develop a removable partial denture RPD path of placement, and provides a literature review of the concept of the RPD path of placement, also known as the path of insertion.

An optimal RPD path of placement, guided by mutually parallel guide planes, ensures that the RPD flanges fit intimately over edentulous ridge structures and that the framework fits intimately with guide plane surfaces, which prevents food collecting empty spaces between the intaglio surface of the framework and intraoral surfaces, and ensures that RPD clasps engage adequate numbers of tooth undercuts to ensure RPD retention.

The article covers topics such as the causes of obstructions to RPD intra-oral seating, the causes of food collecting empty spaces that may exist around an RPD, and how to identify if a guide plane is parallel with the projected RPD path of placement. The article presents a method of using a surgical operating microscope, or high magnification x or greater binocular surgical loupes telescopes, combined with co-axial illumination, to identify a preliminary path of placement for an arch.

This preliminary path of placement concept may help to guide a dentist or a dental laboratory technician when surveying a master cast of the arch to develop an RPD path of placement, or in verifying that intra-oral contouring has aligned teeth surfaces optimally with the RPD path of placement. In dentistry, a well-fitting RPD reduces long-term periodontal or structural damage to abutment teeth.

Comparison of functionally orientated tooth replacement and removable partial dentures on the nutritional status of partially dentate older patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial. The aims of this study were to conduct a randomised controlled clinical trial RCT of partially dentate older adults comparing functionally orientated treatment based on the SDA concept with conventional treatment using RPDs to replace missing natural teeth. The two treatment strategies were evaluated according to their impact on nutritional status measured using haematological biomarkers.

A randomised controlled clinical trial RCT was conducted of partially dentate patients aged 65 years and older Trial Registration no. Each patient provided haematological samples which were screened for biochemical markers of nutritional status. The only measure which illustrated consistent significant improvements in nutritional status for either group were Vitamin D levels.

However no significant difference was recorded between the two treatment groups. Functionally orientated prosthodontic rehabilitation for partially dentate older patients was no worse than conventional removable partial dentures in terms of impact on nutritional. Telescopic Partial Dentures -Concealed Technology.

The ideal goal of good dentist is to restore the missing part of oral structure, phonetics, his look and the most important is restored the normal health of the patient, which is hampered due to less or insufficient intake of food. Removable partial denture RPD treatment option is considered as a notion, which precludes the inevitability of "floating plastic" in edentulous mouth, that many times fail to fulfill the above essential of the patients.

In modern dentistry, though the dental implants or fixed partial denture is the better options, but they have certain limitations. However, overdentures and particularly telescopic denture is the overlooked technology in dentistry that would be a boon for such needy patients.

Telescopic denture is especially indicated in the distal edentulous area with minimum two teeth bilaterally present with a good amount of periodontal support. This treatment modality is sort of preventive prosthodontics remedy, which in a conservative manner preserve the remaining teeth and helps in conservation of alveolar bone ultimately. There are two tenets related to this option, one is constant conservation edentulous ridge around the retained tooth and the most important is the endless existence of periodontal sensory action that directs and monitor gnathodynamic task.

In this option the primary coping or inner coping are cemented on the prepared tooth, and a similar removable outer or inner telescopic crown placed tightly by using a mechanism of tenso-friction, this is firmly attached to a removable RPD in place without moving or rocking of the prosthesis, which is the common compliant of almost all patients of RPD.

Copings are also protecting the abutment from tooth decay and also offers stabilization and maintaining of the outer crown. The outer crown engages the inner coping and gives as an anchor for the remainder of the dentition.

This work is the review of telescopic prosthesis which is well supported by the case discussion, and. After the denture base is constructed, the connected preformed teeth are Quality of Life with Removable Dentures. Goal: To measure change in a quality of life after treatment with removable dentures and to describe differences in quality of life in patients with new and worn out dentures. Three measurements were made: before and after the insertion of dentu res and when patients came to repair their mobile dentures.

Results: Sample consisted of 67 patients: 32 patients who sought prosthetic treatment, and 35 who came to repair their broken dentures. We received Minor changes were made in four 4 questions. Discussion: Patients who wore dentures longer than 5 years, showed better quality of life, because they became accustomed to the dentures.

Conclusions: Self-reported life quality improved considerably after insertion of a new dentures. Patients with a new dentures showed significantly better quality of life than patients with worn out dentures. A partially fabricated denture kit is a device composed of connected preformed teeth that is Objective The aim of this survey was to record removable partial denture RPD retentive elements and abutment teeth in partially edentulous patients, identified in commercial laboratories in Athens, Greece.

Material and Methods master casts with the corresponding cast metal frameworks used in the construction of RPDs were evaluated. Casts were photographed to identify the number and position of existing teeth, the partial edentulism class and the retentive elements. Results There were maxillary Maxillary edentulism entailed almost a total absence of right third molars in Edentulism in the posterior mandible presented a similar pattern. The most profound findings concerning retentive elements were: Of the clasps used, The aim of the study was to gain insight into people's experiences of being given and using partial dentures.

In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with 23 people of varied age, social background and denture wearing experience in Tayside, Scotland. Participants were encouraged to discuss how they came to have partial dentures , their day-to-day denture use and their interactions with dentists. The interview data were systematically coded using key theme headings, and summary charts were constructed to facilitate analysis.

The initial decision that a partial denture was needed was generally difficult to accept. People perceived the main benefits of partial dentures to be improved appearance and confidence, but experienced a variety of difficulties with their dentures and often coped with these by only wearing them on social occasions.

Participants had not always told their dentists about the difficulties they experienced. Barriers to seeking help with denture problems included financial constraints, previous experience of rushed appointments or poor communication from dentists and a perceived lack of entitlement to help when partial dentures were issued free.

Partial dentures can be difficult to cope with. People experience a range of difficulties in wearing them, not all of which have been discussed with dentists. Informative and supportive communication when partial dentures are first needed, and subsequently, can improve the quality of patients' experiences and may help promote effective use and appropriate help-seeking by partial denture wearers.

Tooth-implant connection in removable denture. When the patient cannot be rehabilitated with a fixed denture , or when he does not succeed in adapting to a traditional removable denture , a possible alternative solution consists in the use of a limited number of implants, placed in strategic positions in the arches of the patient, and subsequently connected to their residual teeth. The aim of this review is to evaluate the progress made on connections between teeth and implants in removable denture , to analyze their advantages and disadvantages and to compare the survival rate, both of the teeth and of the implants used as abutments, present in the various studies taken into examination, with the aim of being able to evaluate the effectiveness of this rehabilitative option.

The concept of preserving residual teeth, even if these are unfavorably distributed, and inserting a minimum number of implants in strategic positions, thanks to which an area of favorable support for the denture can be created, seems reasonable; this will guarantee a better adaptation of the patient to the denture , as well as an improvement in the quality of life.

The study of articles present in literature suggests that the survival rate of the implants in removable dentures , supported by teeth and implants through traditional systems of anchorage, appears to be quite high. However, further studies with a higher level of evidence, more representative test subjects and a longer follow-up period are necessary, in order to confirm the validity of this rehabilitative solution.

An overview of removable partial overdentures. As an alternative to complete dentures , overdentures are well established as a sound therapeutic modality for patients with terminal dentition. By utilizing natural tooth roots and their periodontal structures to aid in support, overdentures maintain proprioceptive mediation and a mechanism for masticatory force vectors that favor bone retention over bond resorption.

The degree of stability enhancement and denture retention from retained roots varies with the design and environment of the prosthesis. This article reviews various aspects of removable partial over- denture use.

The influence of the alveolar ridge shape on the stress distribution in a free-end saddle removable partial denture supported by implant. The alveolar ridge shape plays an important role in predicting the demand on the support tooth and alveolar bone in the removable partial denture RPD treatment.

However, these data are unclear when the RPD is associated with implants. This study evaluated the influence of the alveolar ridge shape on the stress distribution of a free-end saddle RPD partially supported by implant using 2-dimensioanl finite element analysis FEA. Four mathematical models M of a mandibular hemiarch simulating various alveolar ridge shapes 1-distal desceding, 2-concave, 3-horizontal and 4-distal ascending were built.

Tooth 33 was placed as the abutment. MA was the control no RPD. The load 50N were applied simultaneously on each cusp. Appropriate boundary conditions were assigned on the border of alveolar bone. Ansys The distal ascending shape showed the highest sigmavM for cortical and medullar bone. The alveolar ridge shape had little effect on changing the sigmavM based on the same prosthesis, mainly around the abutment tooth.

Zirconia-based dental crown to support a removable partial denture : a three-dimensional finite element analysis using contact elements and micro-CT data. Veneer fracture is the most common complication in zirconia-based restorations. Stress fields were obtained using Ansys Workbench Treatment options for patients with severe attrition resulting in reduced occlusal vertical dimension are often limited to fixed prosthesis to reestablish proper occlusal vertical dimension and functional occlusion.

In some cases such as when there are limited finances, minimal esthetic concerns, and medical considerations fixed prosthesis may not be the ideal treatment option. Overlay removable partial dentures ORPDs can be used as a provisional or interim prosthesis as well as permanent prosthesis in these cases. While ORPDs can provide a reversible and relatively inexpensive treatment for patients with a significantly compromised dental status, there is not much scientific evidence in the literature on ORPDs.

Most studies published on ORPDs to date are primarily reviews and clinical reports. This article reviews previously published literatures on the use of ORPDs. Indications, advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Treatment protocol with an example of the prosthodontic treatment of a patient with severely worn dentition with an interim ORPD and later a permanent ORPD are discussed in details. Accelerating effects of cellulase in the removal of denture adhesives from acrylic denture bases.

Studies of effective methods for the easy removal of denture adhesives from a denture base are not well represented in the literature. We previously assessed the removability of denture adhesives by immersing within denture cleaners, showing that some cleaners have a weak effect, insufficiently effective in daily use.

In this study, we prepared a cellulase, as a potential component for denture adhesive removers , and we examined whether the addition of cellulase to denture cleaners is effective in the removal of cream denture adhesives. We prepared the cellulase Meicelase as one component for the liquefaction of denture adhesives.

We used two denture cleaners and two cream adhesives. After the immersion of plates in sample solutions, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered with adhesives. Biofilm removal assay was also performed using denture cleaners containing cellulase. The addition of cellulase accelerated the removal of cream adhesives in immersion experiments to a rate faster than that of water and denture cleaners.

However, it did not influence the removability of Candida albicans biofilms from acrylic resin specimens. Cellulase hastened the liquefaction of cream adhesives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Chronological grey scale changes in supporting alveolar bone by removable partial denture placement on patients with periodontal disease: A 6-month follow-up study using digital subtraction analysis. The purpose was to assess the early effects of removable partial denture RPD placement on abutment teeth in patients with periodontal disease.

Fifteen distal-extension RPDs and 19 abutment teeth were evaluated in 13 patients with moderate-to-severe periodontal diseases. Clinical periodontal records and grey level GL score based on digital subtraction radiography were measured on the day of denture placement baseline and at 1day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the placement. Occlusal force on total dentition Ft and abutment tooth Fa were recorded with baseline and without denture on the day of the placement, and with denture in the follow-up examinations.

No statistically significant difference between a follow-up period and the baseline was found in the clinical periodontal and occlusal force records, except for Ft with denture on the day of the placement, which was significantly lower than the baseline p denture placement, while this does not suggest a detrimental effect within the limitation of the study design with a short-term observation period. The RPDs can be safely used for patients with periodontal diseases for at least 6 months if they are properly placed and maintained by professional care.

The restoration of normal function and esthetic appearance with a dental prosthesis is a major challenge in the rehabilitation of patients who have lost their teeth and surrounding bone because of surgery for oral cyst or tumor. Rehabilitation with fixed or removable prosthesis is even more challenging when the edentulous span is long and the ridge is defective. Anatomic deformities and unfavorable biomechanics encountered in the region of resection add to the misery.

In such situation, a fixed- removable prosthesis allows favorable biomechanical stress distribution along with restoration of esthetics, phonetics, comfort, hygiene, and better postoperative care and maintenance. This article describes rehabilitation of two cases with mandibular defects with an attachment-retained fixed- removable hybrid prosthesis.

Evaluation of the efficiency of denture cleaners for removing denture adhesives. We developed a new scoring index for assessing the removability of denture adhesives and evaluated the removal efficiency of denture cleaners. Although our understanding of the importance of denture care is increasing, little is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of denture cleaners on denture adhesives. Therefore, guidelines for proper cleaning are necessary. We used five denture cleaner solutions on two cream adhesives, one powder adhesive and one cushion adhesive.

After immersion in the denture cleaners for a designated time, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered by denture adhesive. Cream adhesives were removed more completely after immersion in majority of the denture cleaners than in water. Powder adhesive was removed more quickly than cream adhesives. Cushion adhesive was not removed by immersion in either the denture cleaners or water control.

Some denture cleaners could liquefy cream adhesives more than water, but these differences were not observed in case of powder and cushion adhesives. The effect of various factors on the masticatory performance of removable denture wearer. Removable dentures are used to rehabilitate a loss of teeth, which could jeopardize masticatory performance.

Further, there exist various other factors that can affect masticatory performance. The objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between various factors and masticatory performance. The volume of saliva was evaluated using measuring cups, while the residual ridge heights were measured using a modified mouth mirror no. The residual ridge height and removable-denture -wearing experience exhibited a significant relationship with masticatory performance.

However, age, gender, saliva volume, denture type, and the number and location of the missing teeth did not have a statistically significant association with masticatory performance. The residual ridge height influences the masticatory performance of removable denture wearers, since the greater the ridge height, the better the performance.

The experience of using dentures also has a statistically significant influence on masticatory performance. Ceramic systems have limited long-term fracture resistance, especially when they are used in posterior areas or for fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study was to determine the site of crack initiation and the causes of fracture of clinically failed ceramic fixed partial dentures. Three veneered bridges fractured within the veneer layers. Failure stresses of the all-core fixed partial dentures ranged from to MPa.

Failure stresses of the veneered fixed partial dentures ranged from 19 to 68 MPa. We conclude that fracture initiation sites are controlled primarily by contact damage. The role of single immediate loading implant in long Class IV Kennedy mandibular partial denture.

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